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Biostatistics Core Publications


A demonstration of Modified Treatment Policies to evaluate shifts in mobility and COVID-19 case rates in U.S. counties

Mixed evidence exists of associations between mobility data and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates. We aimed to evaluate the county-level impact of reducing mobility on new COVID-19 cases in summer/fall of 2020 in the United States and to demo...
Author(s): Nugent, Joshua R; Balzer, Laura B

Am J Epidemiol. 2023 May 05;192(5):762-771.

PubMed abstract

Current tobacco smoking and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization: Evaluating the role of socio-demographic factors and comorbidities

Our recently published study of >2.4 million adults in Northern California indicated that current versus never-tobacco smoking was associated with lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and less severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We extended this res...
Author(s): Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Slama, Natalie; Sakoda, Lori C; Prochaska, Judith J; Fogelberg, Renee; Alexeeff, Stacey E

Prev Med. 2023 Apr 26;172:107523. Epub 2023-04-26.

PubMed abstract

Impact of a scalable training program on the quality of colonoscopy performance and risk of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer

Endoscopist adenoma detection rates (ADR) vary widely and are associated with patients' risk of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancers (PCCRC). However, few scalable physician-directed interventions demonstrably both improve ADR and reduce PCCRC risk. Among ...
Author(s): Corley, Douglas A; Lee, Jeffrey K; Levin, Theodore R; Fireman, Bruce H; Quesenberry, Charles P; et al.

Gastrointest Endosc. 2023 Apr 22.

PubMed abstract

Sex- and ethnic-specific patterns in the incidence of hip fracture among older US Asian and non-Hispanic White adults

Asian and Pacific Islander (Asian/PI) adults have lower hip fracture incidence than non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults, but data regarding Asian/PI subgroups are limited. We compared hip fracture incidence among older US Asian/PI and NHW populations, includi...
Author(s): Lo, Joan C; Chandra, Malini; Lee, David R; Darbinian, Jeanne A; Gordon, Nancy P; Zeltser, David W; Grimsrud, Christopher D; Lee, Catherine

J Am Geriatr Soc. 2023 Feb 15.

PubMed abstract

Association of Long-term Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution With Cardiovascular Events in California

Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular events, but controversy remains as to whether the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (12 μg/m3 for 1-year mean PM2.5) is sufficiently protect...
Author(s): Alexeeff, Stacey E; Deosaransingh, Kamala; Van Den Eeden, Stephen; Schwartz, Joel; Liao, Noelle S; Sidney, Stephen

JAMA Netw Open. 2023 Feb 01;6(2):e230561. Epub 2023-02-01.

PubMed abstract

Trends in Self-reported and Biochemically Verified Cocaine and Methamphetamine Use Among Pregnant Individuals in Northern California, 2011-2019

This cross-sectional study uses data from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care system with universal screening via self-report and urine toxicology at prenatal care entrance to examine trends in cocaine and methamphetamine use among pregn...
Author(s): Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Slama, Natalie E; Sarovar, Varada; Terplan, Mishka; Ansley, Deborah; Adams, Sara R; Alexeeff, Stacey E

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Dec 01;5(12):e2248055. Epub 2022-12-01.

PubMed abstract

Waning of vaccine effectiveness against moderate and severe covid-19 among adults in the US from the VISION network: test negative, case-control study

To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against moderate and severe covid-19 in adults by time since second, third, or fourth doses, and by age and immunocompromised status. Test negative case-control study. Hospitals, emergency departments, and ur...
Author(s): Ferdinands, Jill M; Klein, Nicola P; Zerbo, Ousseny; Fireman, Bruce; et al.

BMJ. 2022 10 03;379:e072141. Epub 2022-10-03.

PubMed abstract

Trends in Cannabis Polysubstance Use During Early Pregnancy Among Patients in a Large Health Care System in Northern California

Rates of prenatal cannabis use are increasing alongside perceptions that cannabis is a harmless therapeutic for pregnancy-related ailments, while rates of prenatal use of alcohol and tobacco are decreasing. It is important to examine whether cannabis use ...
Author(s): Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Alexeeff, Stacey E; et al.

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 Jun 01;5(6):e2215418. Epub 2022-06-01.

PubMed abstract

Exploratory analysis of novel electronic health record variables for quantification of healthcare delivery strain, prediction of mortality, and prediction of imminent discharge

To explore the relationship between novel, time-varying predictors for healthcare delivery strain (eg, counts of patient orders per hour) and imminent discharge and in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from adults ho...
Author(s): Lee, Catherine; Lawson, Brian L; Mann, Ariana J; Liu, Vincent X; Myers, Laura C; Schuler, Alejandro; Escobar, Gabriel J

J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2022 05 11;29(6):1078-1090.

PubMed abstract

Joint associations between neighborhood walkability, greenness, and particulate air pollution on cardiovascular mortality among adults with a history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Neighborhood walkability and greenness may also be associated with CVD, but there is limited evidence on their joint or interacting effects with PM2.5. Cox proportion...
Author(s): Liao NS; Van Den Eeden SK; Sidney S; Deosaransingh K; Schwartz J; Uong SP; Alexeeff SE

Environ Epidemiol. 2022 Apr;6(2):e200. Epub 2022-02-18.

PubMed abstract

Early Pregnancy Blood Pressure Patterns Identify Risk of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Among Racial and Ethnic Groups

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are a leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and mortality and confer 4-fold higher perinatal mortality in Black women. Early pregnancy blood pressure patterns may differentiate risk of hypertensive disorders of pre...
Author(s): Gunderson, Erica P; Greenberg, Mara; Nguyen-Huynh, Mai N; Tierney, Cassidy; Roberts, James M; Go, Alan S; Tao, Wei; Alexeeff, Stacey E

Hypertension. 2022 03;79(3):599-613. Epub 2021-12-29.

PubMed abstract

Association of Glyburide and Subcutaneous Insulin With Perinatal Complications Among Women With Gestational Diabetes

Nearly 30% of individuals with gestational diabetes (GDM) do not achieve glycemic control with lifestyle modification alone and require medication treatment. Oral agents, such as glyburide, have several advantages over insulin for the treatment of GDM, in...
Author(s): Hedderson, Monique M; Badon, Sylvia E; Pimentel, Noel; Xu, Fei; Regenstein, Anne; Ferrara, Assiamira; Neugebauer, Romain

JAMA Netw Open. 2022 03 01;5(3):e225026. Epub 2022-03-01.

PubMed abstract

Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act eliminated cost sharing for preventive services, including colorectal cancer screening for individuals aged 50-75 years with private health insurance. This study examines the impact of the Affordable Care Act...
Author(s): Lee, Catherine; Kushi, Lawrence H; Reed, Mary E; Eldridge, Elizabeth H; Lee, Jeffrey K; Zhang, Jie; Spiegelman, Donna

Am J Prev Med. 2022 03;62(3):387-394. Epub 2021-11-08.

PubMed abstract

Waning 2-Dose and 3-Dose Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance - VISION Network, 10 States, August 2021-January 2022

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection a...
Author(s): Ferdinands, Jill M; Klein, Nicola P; Zerbo, Ousseny; Fireman, Bruce; et al.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Feb 18;71(7):255-263. Epub 2022-02-18.

PubMed abstract

Hypotonic-hyporesponsive Episodes After Diphtheria, Tetanus and Acellular Pertussis Vaccination

Hypotonic-hyporesponsive episode (HHE) after whole cell pertussis vaccination is a known adverse event. Less is known about the risk of HHE after administration of acellular pertussis vaccines. Using parental interviews, this study actively surveyed for H...
Author(s): Hansen, John; Decker, Michael D; Lewis, Edwin; Fireman, Bruce; Pool, Vitali; Greenberg, David P; Johnson, David R; Black, Steven; Klein, Nicola P

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2021 12 01;40(12):1122-1126.

PubMed abstract

Treatment and Follow-up Care Associated With Patient-Scheduled Primary Care Telemedicine and In-Person Visits in a Large Integrated Health System

Telemedicine visits can offer patients convenient access to a clinician, but it is unclear whether treatment differs from that with in-person visits or how often patients require in-person follow-up. To examine whether physician prescribing and orders dif...
Author(s): Reed, Mary; Huang, Jie; Graetz, Ilana; Muelly, Emilie; Millman, Andrea; Lee, Catherine

JAMA Netw Open. 2021 11 01;4(11):e2132793. Epub 2021-11-01.

PubMed abstract


Author(s): Escobar, Gabriel J; Schuler, Alejandro; Lee, Catherine

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 08;225(2):208. Epub 2021-04-23.

PubMed abstract

Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Risk in Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Rationale: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may be more susceptible to air pollution exposure. However, no study has examined the association between long-term fine particulate m...
Author(s): Alexeeff, Stacey E; Deosaransingh, Kamala; Liao, Noelle S; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Schwartz, Joel; Sidney, Stephen

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 07 15;204(2):159-167.

PubMed abstract

Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Testing and Outcomes : Retrospective Cohort Study in an Integrated Health System

Racial disparities exist in outcomes after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. To evaluate the contribution of race/ethnicity in SARS-CoV-2 testing, infection, and outcomes. Retrospective cohort study (1 February 2020 t...
Author(s): Escobar, Gabriel J; Adams, Alyce S; Liu, Vincent X; Soltesz, Lauren; Chen, Yi-Fen Irene; Parodi, Stephen M; Ray, G Thomas; Myers, Laura C; Ramaprasad, Charulata M; Dlott, Richard; Lee, Catherine

Ann Intern Med. 2021 06;174(6):786-793. Epub 2021-02-09.

PubMed abstract

Particulate Air Pollution and Risk of Cardiovascular Events Among Adults With a History of Stroke or Acute Myocardial Infarction

Background Previous studies have found associations between fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among populations with no CVD history. Less is understood about susceptibility of adults wit...
Author(s): Liao, Noelle S; Sidney, Stephen; Deosaransingh, Kamala; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Schwartz, Joel; Alexeeff, Stacey E

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 05 18;10(10):e019758. Epub 2021-05-04.

PubMed abstract

Editorial Expression of Concern: Exposure to Magnetic Field Non-Ionizing Radiation and the Risk of Miscarriage: A Prospective Cohort Study

Author(s): Li DK; Chen H; Ferber JR; Odouli R; Quesenberry C

Sci Rep. 2021 03 10;11(1):6021. Epub 2021-03-10.

PubMed abstract

Exercise During the First Trimester of Pregnancy and the Risks of Abnormal Screening and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

To estimate the effects of exercise during the first trimester on the risks of abnormal screening and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data come from PETALS, a prospectively followed pregnancy cohort (n = 2,246, 79% minorities) receiving care at Kaise...
Author(s): Ehrlich, Samantha F; Ferrara, Assiamira; Hedderson, Monique M; Feng, Juanran; Neugebauer, Romain

Diabetes Care. 2021 02;44(2):425-432. Epub 2020-12-21.

PubMed abstract


An increasing number of delivering women experience major morbidity and mortality. Limited work has been done on automated predictive models that could be used for prevention. Using only routinely collected obstetrical data, this study aimed to develop a ...
Author(s): Escobar, Gabriel J; Soltesz, Lauren; Schuler, Alejandro; Niki, Hamid; Malenica, Ivana; Lee, Catherine

Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 02;224(2):137-147.e7. Epub 2020-10-22.

PubMed abstract

Fitting a shared frailty illness-death model to left-truncated semi-competing risks data to examine the impact of education level on incident dementia

Semi-competing risks arise when interest lies in the time-to-event for some non-terminal event, the observation of which is subject to some terminal event. One approach to assessing the impact of covariates on semi-competing risks data is through the illn...
Author(s): Lee, Catherine; Gilsanz, Paola; Haneuse, Sebastien

BMC Med Res Methodol. 2021 01 11;21(1):18. Epub 2021-01-11.

PubMed abstract

Long-Term PM2.5 Exposure and Risks of Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Events: Review and Meta-Analysis

Background Fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has known effects on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, no study has quantified and compared the risks of incident myocardial infarction, incident stroke, ischemic heart disease ...
Author(s): Alexeeff, Stacey E; Liao, Noelle S; Liu, Xi; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Sidney, Stephen

J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 01 05;10(1):e016890. Epub 2020-12-31.

PubMed abstract