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Infectious Diseases Publications


Population-based assessment of risks for severe COVID-19 disease outcomes

Among approximately 4.6 million members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we examined associations of severe COVID-19 with demographic factors and comorbidities. As of July 23, 2021, 16 182 had been hospitalized, 2416 admitted to an ICU, and 1525 ...
Author(s): Zerbo O; Lewis N; Fireman B; Goddard K; Skarbinski J; Sejvar JJ; Azziz-Baumgartner E; Klein NP

Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2021 Aug 25.

PubMed abstract

Characterization of HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Use Behaviors and HIV Incidence Among US Adults in an Integrated Health Care System

Long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate gaps in HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care delivery and to identify individuals at risk for falling out of care. To characterize the PrEP continuum of care, including prescription, initiation, discontinuation...
Author(s): Hojilla JC; Hurley LB; Marcus JL; Silverberg MJ; Skarbinski J; Satre DD; Volk JE

JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Aug 02;4(8):e2122692. Epub 2021-08-02.

PubMed abstract

A phase 3, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of 3 lots of 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults 18 through 49 years of age

Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), including the 13-valent PCV (PCV13), has considerably reduced pneumococcal disease burden. However, additional serotypes not in PCV13 continue to present a substantial disease burden. The 20-valent P...
Author(s): Klein NP; Peyrani P; Yacisin K; Caldwell N; Xu X; Scully IL; Scott DA; Jansen KU; Gruber WC; Watson W

Vaccine. 2021 Jul 24.

PubMed abstract

A Risk Score to Predict Clostridioides difficile Infection

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of severe diarrhea. In this retrospective study, we identified CDI risk factors by comparing demographic and clinical characteristics for Kaiser Permanente Northern California members ≥18 years old...
Author(s): Aukes L; Fireman B; Lewis E; Timbol J; Hansen J; Yu H; Cai B; Gonzalez E; Lawrence J; Klein NP

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Mar;8(3):ofab052. Epub 2021-02-04.

PubMed abstract

The relationship of smoking and unhealthy alcohol use to the HIV care continuum among people with HIV in an integrated health care system

Smoking tobacco and unhealthy alcohol use may negatively influence HIV care continuum outcomes but have not been examined in combination. Participants were people with HIV (PWH) in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Predictors included smoking status ...
Author(s): Satre DD; Sterling SA; Young-Wolff KC; Lam JO; Alexeeff S; Hojilla JC; Weisner C; Silverberg MJ; et al.

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Feb 01;219:108481. Epub 2021-01-08.

PubMed abstract

Comparison of dementia risk after age 50 between individuals with and without HIV infection

To compare risk of dementia after age 50 by HIV status among individuals in a primary care setting. Observational cohort study; participants were identified from 2013-2017 and followed through 2019. Participants were people with HIV (PWH) on antiretrovira...
Author(s): Lam JO; Hou CE; Hojilla JC; Anderson AN; Gilsanz P; Alexeeff SE; Levine-Hall T; Hood N; Lee C; Satre DD; Silverberg MJ

AIDS. 2020 Dec 30;Publish Ahead of Print. Epub 2020-12-30.

PubMed abstract

Genetic associations with a fever after measles-containing vaccines

Children have elevated fever risk 1 to 2 weeks after the first dose of a measles-containing vaccine (MCV), which is likely affected by genetic, immunologic, and clinical factors. Fever after MCV is associated with febrile seizures, though may also be asso...
Author(s): Klein NP; Zerbo O; Goddard K; Wang W; Fohner AE; Wiesner A; Shokoohi V; Coller J; Bok K; Gans HA

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020 Dec 22:1-7.

PubMed abstract

Beyond the HIV Care Continuum and Viral Suppression: Broadening the Scope of Quality Metrics for Total HIV Patient Care

Assessing quality care for people with HIV (PWH) should not be limited to reporting on HIV Care Continuum benchmarks, particularly viral suppression rates. At Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States (KPMAS), an integrated health system providing HIV care in...
Author(s): Horberg MA; Certa JM; Rubenstein KB; Hurley LB; Satre DD; Kadlecik PM; Silverberg MJ

AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2020 Nov;34(11):461-469.

PubMed abstract

Health System-Based Unhealthy Alcohol Use Screening and Treatment Comparing Demographically-Matched Participants With and Without HIV

Unhealthy alcohol use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is linked to significant morbidity and use of alcohol services may differ by HIV status. Our objective was to compare unhealthy alcohol use screening and treatment by HIV status in primary care. C...
Author(s): Silverberg MJ; Alexeeff SE; Lam JO; Weisner CM; Sterling SA; Satre DD; et al.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2020 Oct 17.

PubMed abstract

Association of Mortality and Years of Potential Life Lost With Active Tuberculosis in the United States

Active tuberculosis (TB) disease leads to substantial mortality but is preventable through screening and treatment for latent TB infection. Early mortality after TB diagnosis (≤1 year) is well described, but delayed mortality (>1 year) among patients with...
Author(s): Lee-Rodriguez C; Wada PY; Hung YY; Skarbinski J

JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Sep 01;3(9):e2014481. Epub 2020-09-01.

PubMed abstract

Shouting at each other into the void: A linguistic network analysis of vaccine hesitance and support in online discourse regarding California law SB277

In 2015, California passed Senate Bill 277 and became the third state in the United States to ban all nonmedical exemptions from school immunization requirements, effectively prohibiting religious and personal belief exemptions. This attracted grassroots ...
Author(s): DeDominicis K; Buttenheim AM; Howa AC; Delamater PL; Salmon D; Omer SB; Klein NP

Soc Sci Med. 2020 Aug 28;266:113216. Epub 2020-08-28.

PubMed abstract

Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Risk of Cancer among Persons Living with HIV

Persons living with HIV (PLWH) experience a high burden of cancer. It remains unknown which cancer types are reduced in PLWH with earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated AIDS-free, ART-naive PLWH during 1996-2014 from 22 cohorts p...
Author(s): Silverberg MJ; Neugebauer RS; North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design of the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS; et al.

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Aug 12.

PubMed abstract

Individual and Neighborhood Factors Associated with Failure to Vaccinate against Influenza during Pregnancy

Influenza vaccine uptake among pregnant women remains low. We investigated whether unvaccinated pregnant women cluster geographically and determined factors associated with failure to vaccinate using a spatial and multivariate logistic regression analyses...
Author(s): Zerbo O; Ray T; Zhang L; Goddard K; Fireman B; Adams A; Omer S; Kulldorff M; Klein NP

Am J Epidemiol. 2020 Jul 31.

PubMed abstract

HIV Stigma and Its Associations with Longitudinal Health Outcomes Among Persons Living with HIV with a History of Unhealthy Alcohol Use

This study examined the demographic and clinical correlates of HIV stigma and evaluated how HIV stigma was associated with physical and mental health outcomes one year later in a primary-care based cohort of persons living with HIV (PLHIV; N = 584). HIV s...
Author(s): Hojilla JC; Santiago-Rodriguez EI; Sterling S; Williams EC; Leyden W; Hare CB; Silverberg MJ; Satre DD

AIDS Behav. 2020 Jul 06.

PubMed abstract

Smoking and cessation treatment among persons with and without HIV in a U.S. integrated health system

Persons with HIV (PWH) are more likely to smoke and are more susceptible to the harmful effects of smoking than persons without HIV. We examined smoking patterns and use of cessation treatment among PWH and persons without HIV in a U.S. integrated health ...
Author(s): Lam JO; Levine-Hall T; Hood N; Alexeeff SE; Horberg MA; Young-Wolff KC; Sterling SA; Williams A; Weisner C; Satre DD; Silverberg MJ

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 Aug 01;213:108128. Epub 2020-06-18.

PubMed abstract

Evaluation of a Vaccine-Communication Tool for Physicians

To evaluate a Kaiser Permanente Northern California physician-training-tool entitled "Effective Communication without Confrontation" (ECC) aimed at improving communication with vaccine-hesitant parents, building trust, and alleviating physician ...
Author(s): Glanternik JR; McDonald JC; Yee AH; Howell A; Saba KN; Mellor RG; Fireman B; Klein NP

J Pediatr. 2020 Jun 06.

PubMed abstract

Early Adopters of Event-driven Human Immunodeficiency Virus Pre-exposure Prophylaxis in a Large Healthcare System in San Francisco

Among 279 patients within a large healthcare system in San Francisco, event-driven HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis using a 2-1-1 regimen was a desirable alternative to daily dosing. Problems with adherence, planning sex in advance, or side effects were infre...
Author(s): Hojilla JC; Marcus JL; Silverberg MJ; Hare CB; Herbers R; Hurley L; Satre DD; Volk JE

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 04.

PubMed abstract

Response to Brandt, Bednarz-Knoll, Kleinheinz et al

Author(s): Chaturvedi AK; Udaltsova N; Engels EA; Katzel JA; Yanik EL; Katki HA; Lingen MW; Silverberg MJ

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2020 Jun 01.

PubMed abstract

Comparison of Overall and Comorbidity-Free Life Expectancy Between Insured Adults With and Without HIV Infection, 2000-2016

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved life expectancy for individuals with HIV infection, but recent data comparing life span and comorbidity-free years by HIV status are lacking. To quantify the gap in life span and comorbidity-free years by HIV stat...
Author(s): Marcus JL; Leyden WA; Alexeeff SE; Anderson AN; Hechter RC; Hu H; Lam JO; Towner WJ; Yuan Q; Horberg MA; Silverberg MJ

JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jun 01;3(6):e207954. Epub 2020-06-01.

PubMed abstract

Effectiveness of 'catch-up' human papillomavirus vaccination to prevent cervical neoplasia in immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed women

It is unknown whether the HPV vaccine is effective in immunocompromised women during catch-up ages. We performed a case-control study of 4,357 women with incident CIN2+ (cases) and 5:1 age-matched, incidence-density selected controls (N = 21,773) enrolled...
Author(s): Silverberg MJ; Leyden WA; Lam JO; Chao CR; Gregorich SE; Huchko MJ; Kulasingam S; Kuppermann M; Smith-McCune KK; Sawaya GF

Vaccine. 2020 Jun 15;38(29):4520-4523. Epub 2020-05-20.

PubMed abstract

Identification and description of mumps cases in a non-outbreak setting and evaluation of the effectiveness of mumps-containing vaccines over time

Mumps outbreaks among previously vaccinated young adults raise concerns regarding waning vaccine immunity. This study identified, described and assessed the changing incidence of mumps cases following mumps-containing vaccination (MMR/MMRV) in a non-mumps...
Author(s): Zerbo O; Modaressi S; Glanternik JR; Goddard K; Ross P; Lewis N; Klein NP

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020 May 13:1-5.

PubMed abstract

Vaccine effectiveness of cell-culture relative to egg-based inactivated influenza vaccine during the 2017-18 influenza season

There is concern that influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) may be attenuated by passage in eggs during manufacture. We compared quadrivalent cell-culture vaccine with egg-based vaccines, most of which were trivalent, against influenza A and B during 2017-...
Author(s): Klein NP; Fireman B; Goddard K; Zerbo O; Asher J; Zhou J; King J; Lewis N

PLoS ONE. 2020;15(2):e0229279. Epub 2020-02-26.

PubMed abstract

Retrospective study of the use of an influenza disease two-tiered classification system to characterize clinical severity in US children

In children 39°C, acute otitis media, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), or extra-pulmonary complications; otherwise, they were classified as mild. We used multivariable log-binomial models to assess whether M-S influenza disease was associated wit...
Author(s): Hsiao A; Buck PO; Yee A; Hansen J; Lewis EM; Aukes LL; Yanni E; Bekkat-Berkani R; Schuind A; Klein NP

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2020 Feb 20:1-9.

PubMed abstract

Burden of Active Tuberculosis in an Integrated Health Care System, 1997-2016: Incidence, Mortality, and Excess Health Care Utilization

Active tuberculosis (TB) is preventable. To quantify the potential value of prevention, we assessed active TB burden in a large health system from 1997 to 2016. Compared with a matched non-TB cohort, patients with active TB had higher mortality (8.4% vs 1...
Author(s): Wada PY; Lee-Rodriguez C; Hung YY; Skarbinski J

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2020 Jan;7(1):ofaa015. Epub 2020-01-12.

PubMed abstract

Oral leukoplakia and risk of progression to oral cancer: A population-based cohort study

The optimal clinical management of oral precancer remains uncertain. We investigated the natural-history of oral leukoplakia, the most common oral precancerous lesion, to estimate the relative and absolute risks of progression to cancer, the predictive ac...
Author(s): Chaturvedi AK; Udaltsova N; Engels EA; Katzel JA; Yanik EL; Katki HA; Lingen MW; Silverberg MJ

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019 Dec 20.

PubMed abstract