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A novel body composition risk score (B-Score) and overall survival among patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer

Measurements (amount, distribution, and radiodensity) of muscle and adipose tissue were reported to be individually associated with overall survival in patients with breast cancer. However, they were not typically combined to develop an overall risk score, which can identify patients at high risk of death and prioritize patients in need of dietary and lifestyle interventions. Thus, we aimed to develop a novel composite body composition risk score (B-Score). We included 3105 patients with stage II or III breast cancer at Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Dana Farber Cancer Institute. From CT scans at diagnosis, we assessed areas and radiodensity of muscle and adipose tissue at the third lumber vertebrae. We considered skeletal muscle index (SMI), subcutaneous adipose tissue index (SATI) and SAT radiodensity as they were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Each measurement was dichotomized using optimal stratification, with low SMI (<40.1 cm2/m2), high SATI (≥75.7 cm2/m2), and high SAT radiodensity (≥-97.2HU) considered risk factors. We calculated B-Score as the sum of these factors and estimated its association with overall survival using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for clinicopathologic factors. Mean (standard deviation) age was 53.9 (11.8) years, 70.3% were Non-Hispanic White, and 60.5% were stage II. Most patients (60.6%) had only one body composition risk factor (B-Score = 1). Compared to those with no risk factors (B-Score = 0), the risk of death increased with more body composition risk factors: the adjusted hazard ratios were 1.10 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.42), 1.47 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.92), and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.53) for B-Scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively (Ptrend < 0.001). More unfavorable body composition characteristics were associated with increased risks of overall mortality in a dose-response manner. Considering body composition measurements together as a composite score (B-Score) may improve risk stratification and inform dietary and lifestyle interventions following breast cancer diagnosis.

Authors: Cheng, En;Caan, Bette J;Chen, Wendy Y;Prado, Carla M;Cespedes Feliciano, Elizabeth M

Clin Nutr. 2024 Apr;43(4):981-987. Epub 2024-03-06.

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