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Age-Related Development of Cardiac Remodeling and Dysfunction in Young Black and White Adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

Little is known about the timing of preclinical heart failure (HF) development, particularly among blacks. The primary aims of this study were to delineate age-related left ventricular (LV) structure and function evolution in a biracial cohort and to test the hypothesis that young-adult LV parameters within normative ranges would be associated with incident stage B-defining LV abnormalities over 25 years, independent of cumulative risk factor burden. Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study were analyzed. Participants (n = 2,833) had a mean baseline age of 30.1 years; 45% were black, and 56% were women. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate age-related probabilities of stage B LV abnormalities (remodeling, hypertrophy, or dysfunction) and logistic regression to examine risk factor-adjusted associations between baseline LV parameters and incident abnormalities. Cox regression was used to assess whether baseline LV parameters associated with incident stage B LV abnormalities were also associated with incident clinical (stage C/D) HF events over >25 years’ follow-up. Probabilities of stage B LV abnormalities at ages 25 and 60 years were 10.5% (95% CI, 9.4%-11.8%) and 45.0% (95% CI, 42.0%-48.1%), with significant race-sex disparities (e.g., at age 60, black men 52.7% [95% CI, 44.9%-60.3%], black women 59.4% [95% CI, 53.6%-65.0%], white men 39.1% [95% CI, 33.4%-45.0%], and white women 39.1% [95% CI, 33.9%-44.6%]). Over 25 years, baseline LV end-systolic dimension indexed to height was associated with incident systolic dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio per 1 SD higher, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.87-3.52), eccentric hypertrophy (1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.75), concentric hypertrophy (0.69; 95% CI, 0.51-0.91), and concentric remodeling (0.68; 95% CI, 0.58-0.79); baseline LV mass indexed to height2.7 was associated with incident eccentric hypertrophy (1.70; 95% CI, 1.25-2.32]), concentric hypertrophy (1.63; 95% CI, 1.19-2.24), and diastolic dysfunction (1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.52). Among the entire cohort with baseline echocardiographic data available (n = 4,097; 72 HF events), LV end-systolic dimension indexed to height and LV mass indexed to height2.7 were significantly associated with incident clinical HF (adjusted hazard ratios per 1 SD higher, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.26-1.93] and 1.42 [95% CI, 1.14-1.75], respectively). Stage B LV abnormalities and related racial disparities were present in young adulthood, increased with age, and were associated with baseline variation in indexed LV end-systolic dimension and mass. Baseline indexed LV end-systolic dimension and mass were also associated with incident clinical HF. Efforts to prevent the LV abnormalities underlying clinical HF should start from a young age.

Authors: Perak, Amanda M; Khan, Sadiya S; Colangelo, Laura A; Gidding, Samuel S; Armstrong, Anderson C; Lewis, Cora E; Reis, Jared P; Schreiner, Pamela J; Sidney, Stephen; Lima, Joao A C; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2021 04;34(4):388-400. Epub 2020-11-17.

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