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Are Health Plan Design and Prior Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Associated with Pregnancy Intention?

In 2007, high-deductible plans were added to the primarily nondeductible Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) integrated health plan, which had covered 100% of device and procedure costs of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) for members regardless of prescription/visit copay amount. We hypothesized that nondeductible plans and prior LARC use decreased unintended pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine if health plan design (nondeductible vs. deductible) and LARC use before pregnancy were associated with pregnancy intention. In this retrospective cohort study, women aged 15-44 as of the index date of June 30, 2010 were followed from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012 for evidence of pregnancy (n = 65,989). Health plan design, copays, contraceptive method used most recently before the pregnancy, and self-reported pregnancy intention status (intended, mistimed, unwanted) were obtained from electronic medical records. Logistic regression models were developed to determine if various health plan designs, copays, or prior LARC use were associated with pregnancy intention, controlling for potential confounders such as age, race/ethnicity, marital status, education/income, parity, and comorbidities. In all models, LARC use before pregnancy versus non-LARC use was significantly related to intended pregnancies (all models: odds ratio [OR] = 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.06-2.48). Women with deductible plans with healthcare spending accounts (HSA) were more likely to report intended pregnancies versus women with nondeductible plans (all models: OR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.04-1.30). In stratified analyses, high income/high education was a significant predictor of intended pregnancy regardless of race/ethnicity. LARC use before pregnancy and having an HSA were associated with intended pregnancy.

Authors: Armstrong MA; Postlethwaite DA; Darbinian JA; McCoy M; Law A

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017 May;26(5):450-460. Epub 2016-10-18.

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