OBJECTIVE: Our intent was to compare the management of patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance on cytologic screening at an academic center to published guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the management of 223 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cervical smears. Patients with a history of dysplasia were excluded. The time interval to and nature of follow-up testing was determined, and the influence of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance qualifiers and provider specialty analyzed. RESULTS: Initial follow-up consisted of repeat cytologic examination alone in 94% of cases. Of patients with follow-up, 29% were retested within 2 months and 68% within 4 months. No conclusive differences in management were found by qualifier type or by provider specialty. Subsequent high-grade dysplasia was found in 2.6% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: A discrepancy exists between published guidelines and actual management of patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance smears at this medical center. Patients often undergo follow-up testing at shorter intervals than those suggested despite a low likelihood of finding high-grade disease.