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Benefits and harms of lung cancer screening in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ ≥ 500: a simulation study

Lung cancer is the leading cause of non-AIDS-defining cancer deaths among HIV-infected individuals. Although lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) is endorsed by multiple national organizations, whether HIV-infected individuals would have similar benefit as uninfected individuals from lung cancer screening is unknown. Our objective was to determine the benefits and harms of lung cancer screening among HIV-infected individuals. We modified an existing simulation model, the Lung Cancer Policy Model, for HIV-infected patients. Veterans Aging Cohort Study, Kaiser Permanente Northern California HIV Cohort, and medical literature. HIV-infected current and former smokers. Lifetime. Population. Annual LDCT screening from ages 45, 50, or 55 until ages 72 or 77 years. Benefits assessed included lung cancer mortality reduction and life-years gained; harms assessed included numbers of LDCT examinations, false-positive results, and overdiagnosed cases. For HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell count at least 500 cells/μl and 100% antiretroviral therapy adherence, screening using the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services criteria (age 55-77, 30 pack-years of smoking, current smoker or quit within 15 years of screening) would reduce lung cancer mortality by 18.9%, similar to the mortality reduction of uninfected individuals. Alternative screening strategies utilizing lower screening age and/or pack-years criteria increase mortality reduction, but require more LDCT examinations. Strategies assumed 100% screening adherence. Lung cancer screening reduces mortality in HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell count at least 500 cells/μl, with a number of efficient strategies for eligibility, including the current Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services criteria.

Authors: Kong CY; Sigel K; Criss SD; Sheehan DF; Triplette M; Silverberg MJ; Henschke CI; Justice A; Braithwaite RS; Wisnivesky J; Crothers K

AIDS. 2018 06 19;32(10):1333-1342.

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