Active tuberculosis (TB) is preventable. To quantify the potential value of prevention, we assessed active TB burden in a large health system from 1997 to 2016. Compared with a matched non-TB cohort, patients with active TB had higher mortality (8.4% vs 1.3%), mean number of hospitalizations (0.55 vs 0.10), emergency department visits (0.78 vs 0.28), and outpatient visits (14.6 vs 5.9) in the first year. TB-associated hospital use (mean number of hospitalizations and total length of stay) increased from 1997-2000 compared with 2013-2016 despite decreasing active TB incidence. Active TB is associated with high mortality and health care utilization and has remained stable or increased over time.