The Institute of Medicine recommends cancer survivors completing treatment be provided with a treatment summary to facilitate delivery of patient-centered survivorship care. However, the relationship between treatment summary receipt and patient-centered communication (PCC) and overall quality of care (QOC) are not well understood. Cancer survivors responding to the Health Information National Trends Survey reported treatment summary receipt, QOC, and experiences of six core functions of PCC. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationship between treatment summary receipt and PCC. The prevalence of survivors’ treatment summary receipt and demographic/clinical characteristics predictive of treatment summary receipt were also assessed. Of 359 respondents with a cancer history, 34.5% reported receiving a treatment summary. Greater treatment burden was associated with increased treatment summary receipt. Treatment summary receipt was associated with higher QOC and more PCC, both overall and for five of the six PCC functions. The receipt of cancer treatment summaries may improve PCC and QOC for survivors. The positive relationship between treatment summary receipt and survivors’ PCC experience substantiates continued efforts to provide treatment summaries to survivors transitioning from active treatment to survivorship care. Future research should characterize mechanisms by which treatment summary provision may enhance PCC.