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Community-Based Epidemiology of Hospitalized Acute Kidney Injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI) may lead to short- and long-term consequences in children, but its epidemiology has not been well described at a population level and outside of ICU settings. In a large, diverse pediatric population receiving care within an integrated health care delivery system between 2008 and 2016, we calculated age- and sex-adjusted incidences of hospitalized AKI using consensus serum creatinine (SCr)-based diagnostic criteria. We also investigated the proportion of AKI detected in non-ICU settings and the rates of follow-up outpatient SCr testing after AKI hospitalization. Among 1 500 546 children, the mean age was 9.8 years, 49.0% were female, and 33.1% were minorities. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence of hospitalized AKI among the entire pediatric population did not change significantly across the study period, averaging 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.73) cases per 1000 person-years. Among the subset of hospitalized children, the adjusted incidence of AKI increased from 6.0% of hospitalizations in 2008 to 8.8% in 2016. Approximately 66.7% of AKI episodes were not associated with an ICU stay, and 54.3% of confirmed, unresolved Stage 2 or 3 AKI episodes did not have outpatient follow-up SCr testing within 30 days postdischarge. Community-based pediatric AKI incidence was ∼1 per 1000 per year, with two-thirds of cases not associated with an ICU stay and more than one-half not receiving early outpatient follow-up kidney function testing. Further efforts are needed to increase the systematic recognition of AKI in all inpatient settings with appropriate, targeted postdischarge kidney function monitoring and associated management.

Authors: Parikh, Rishi V; Tan, Thida C; Salyer, Anne S; Auron, Ari; Kim, Peter S; Ku, Elaine; Go, Alan S

Pediatrics. 2020 09;146(3). Epub 2020-08-11.

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