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Current and Past Immunodeficiency Are Associated With Higher Hospitalization Rates Among Persons on Virologically Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy for up to 11 Years

Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) with persistently low CD4 counts despite efficacious antiretroviral therapy could have higher hospitalization risk. In 6 US and Canadian clinical cohorts, PWH with virologic suppression for ≥1 year in 2005-2015 were followed until virologic failure, loss to follow-up, death, or study end. Stratified by early (years 2-5) and long-term (years 6-11) suppression and lowest presuppression CD4 count <200 and ≥200 cells/µL, Poisson regression models estimated hospitalization incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) comparing patients by time-updated CD4 count category, adjusted for cohort, age, gender, calendar year, suppression duration, and lowest presuppression CD4 count. The 6997 included patients (19 980 person-years) were 81% cisgender men and 40% white. Among patients with lowest presuppression CD4 count <200 cells/μL (44%), patients with current CD4 count 200-350 vs >500 cells/μL had aIRRs of 1.44 during early suppression (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.06), and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.03-2.72) during long-term suppression. Among patients with lowest presuppression CD4 count ≥200 (56%), patients with current CD4 351-500 vs >500 cells/μL had an aIRR of 1.22 (95% CI, .93-1.60) during early suppression and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.18-3.70) during long-term suppression. Virologically suppressed patients with lower CD4 counts experienced higher hospitalization rates and could potentially benefit from targeted clinical management strategies.

Authors: Davy-Mendez, Thibaut; Silverberg, Michael J; North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) of the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA); et al.

J Infect Dis. 2021 08 16;224(4):657-666. Epub 2020-12-26.

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