Diabetes that arises from chronic pancreatitis (CP) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Methods to predict which patients with CP are at greatest risk for diabetes are urgently needed. We aimed to examine independent risk factors for diabetes in a large cohort of patients with CP. This cross-sectional study comprised 645 individuals with CP enrolled in the PROCEED study, of whom 276 had diabetes. We conducted univariable and multivariable regression analyses of potential risk factors for diabetes. Model performance was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis, and accuracy was evaluated by cross validation. Exploratory analyses were stratified according to the timing of development of diabetes relative to the diagnosis of pancreatitis. Independent correlates of diabetes in CP included risk factors for type 2 diabetes (older age, overweight/obese status, male sex, non-White race, tobacco use) as well as pancreatic disease-related factors (history of acute pancreatitis complications, nonalcoholic etiology of CP, exocrine pancreatic dysfunction, pancreatic calcification, pancreatic atrophy) (AUROC 0.745). Type 2 diabetes risk factors were predominant for diabetes occurring before pancreatitis, and pancreatic disease-related factors were predominant for diabetes occurring after pancreatitis. Multiple factors are associated with diabetes in CP, including canonical risk factors for type 2 diabetes and features associated with pancreatitis severity. This study lays the groundwork for the future development of models integrating clinical and nonclinical data to identify patients with CP at risk for diabetes and identifies modifiable risk factors (obesity, smoking) on which to focus for diabetes prevention.