Diet modulates inflammation and insulin response and may be an important modifiable factor in the primary prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease (CLD). We developed the empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) and empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) scores to assess the inflammatory and insulinemic potentials of diet. We prospectively examined the associations of EDIP and EDIH at baseline with the following HCC risk and CLD mortality. We followed 485 931 individuals in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study since 1995. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We confirmed 635 incident HCC cases and 993 CLD deaths. Participants in the highest compared with those in the lowest EDIP quartile had a 1.35 times higher risk of developing HCC (95% CI = 1.08 to 1.70, Ptrend = .0005) and a 1.70 times higher CLD mortality (95% CI = 1.41 to 2.04, Ptrend < .0001). For the same comparison, participants with the highest EDIH were at increased risk of HCC (HR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.95, Ptrend = .0004) and CLD mortality (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.42 to 2.01, Ptrend < .0001). Similar positive associations of scores with HCC risk and CLD mortality were observed for both women and men. Moreover, individuals in both the highest EDIP and EDIH tertiles had a 92% increased HCC risk (95% CI = 1.43 to 2.58) and 98% increased CLD mortality (95% CI = 1.27 to 3.08) compared with those in both lowest tertiles. Our findings suggest that inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are potential mechanisms linking diet to HCC development and CLD mortality.