PURPOSE: To determine the association of dietary patterns with cancer recurrence and mortality of early-stage breast cancer survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients included 1,901 Life After Cancer Epidemiology Study participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 1997 and 2000 and recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry. Diet was assessed at cohort entry using a food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were identified: prudent (high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and poultry) and Western (high intakes of red and processed meats and refined grains). Two hundred sixty-eight breast cancer recurrences and 226 all-cause deaths (128 attributable to breast cancer) were ascertained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Increasing adherence to a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a statistically significant decreasing risk of overall death (P trend = .02; HR for highest quartile = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.90) and death from non-breast cancer causes (P trend = .003; HR for highest quartile = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.73). In contrast, increasing consumption of a Western dietary pattern was related to an increasing risk of overall death (P trend = .05) and death from non-breast cancer causes (P = .02). Neither dietary pattern was associated with risk of breast cancer recurrence or death from breast cancer. These observations were generally not modified by physical activity, being overweight, or smoking. CONCLUSION: Women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer might improve overall prognosis and survival by adopting more healthful dietary patterns.