Language barriers in healthcare are associated with worse glycemic control among Latino patients with limited English proficiency and diabetes. We examined the association of patient-physician language concordance with lipid (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) control. Retrospective cohort study. Data were obtained from a survey and the electronic health records of Latino and white patients with diabetes receiving care within 1 integrated health plan with interpreter services available. Limited English proficiency and patient-physician language concordance were defined by patient report. Outcomes were poor lipid control (LDL-C >100 mg/dL) and poor SBP control (SBP >140 mm Hg). In total, 3463 Latino (2921 who spoke English and 542 who were limited English proficient [LEP]) and 3896 English-speaking white patients participated. One-third of the patients had poor lipid control and one-fifth had poor SBP control. English-speaking white patients were slightly less likely to have poor lipid control than English-speaking Latino patients, but the difference did not persist after adjustment for age and sex. Among Latinos, LEP patients were less likely to have poor lipid control than English-speaking patients (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), with no difference by LEP patient-physician language concordance. Poor SBP control did not differ by ethnicity, primary language, or patient-physician language concordance. We found no evidence that ethnicity or language barriers in healthcare were associated with poorer lipid or blood pressure control among Latino and white patients with diabetes receiving care in settings with professional interpreters.