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Lifestyle and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Heart Failure Subtypes in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

Breast cancer (BC) survivors experience an increased burden of long-term comorbidities, including heart failure (HF). However, there is limited understanding of the risk for the development of HF subtypes, such as HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), in BC survivors. This study sought to estimate the incidence of HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in postmenopausal BC survivors and to identify lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors associated with HF subtypes. Within the Women’s Health Initiative, participants with an adjudicated diagnosis of invasive BC were followed to determine the incidence of hospitalized HF, for which adjudication procedures determined left ventricular ejection fraction. We calculated cumulative incidences of HF, HFpEF, and HFrEF. We estimated HRs for risk factors in relation to HF, HFpEF, and HFrEF using Cox proportional hazards survival models. In 2,272 BC survivors (28.6% Black and 64.9% White), the cumulative incidences of hospitalized HFpEF and HFrEF were 6.68% and 3.96%, respectively, over a median of 7.2 years (IQR: 3.6-12.3 years). For HFpEF, prior myocardial infarction (HR: 2.83; 95% CI: 1.28-6.28), greater waist circumference (HR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14-3.49), and smoking history (HR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.01-2.67) were the strongest risk factors in multivariable models. With the exception of waist circumference, similar patterns were observed for HFrEF, although none were significant. In relation to those without HF, the risk of overall mortality in BC survivors with hospitalized HFpEF was 5.65 (95% CI: 4.11-7.76), and in those with hospitalized HFrEF, it was 3.77 (95% CI: 2.51-5.66). In this population of older, racially diverse BC survivors, the incidence of HFpEF, as defined by HF hospitalizations, was higher than HFrEF. HF was also associated with an increased mortality risk. Risk factors for HF were largely similar to the general population with the exception of prior myocardial infarction for HFpEF. Notably, both waist circumference and smoking represent potentially modifiable factors.

Authors: Reding, Kerryn W; Caan, Bette; Anderson, Garnet; et al.

JACC CardioOncol. 2022 Mar;4(1):53-65. Epub 2022-03-15.

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