Implications of lubricant use in men having sex with men (MSM) are poorly characterized, particularly associations with sexual behavior and rectal sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. We sought to clarify covariates associated with lubrication type including differing sexual preferences and rectal STI prevalence. Primary English-speaking individuals ≥18 years old visiting San Francisco City Clinic (SFCC) between April and May of 2018 who endorsed lubricant use during receptive anal sex within the last 3 months were studied. Associations between lubrication type used and collected covariates were assessed using Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance for continuous variables and Chi-squared test for categorical variables. We used logistic regression to examine the association between lubrication type and rectal STI test result. Rectal STI test positivity. From all enrolled participants, 179 completed the survey and endorsed use of a lubricant during receptive anal sex within the last 3 months. Silicone lubricant users had the most sexual partners in the last 3 months (13 [mean] ± 30 [SD], P= .0003) and were most likely to have a history of gonorrhea. Oil-based lubricant users had the most partners with whom they had receptive anal sex in the last 3 months (7 ± 6, P= .03). Water-based lubricant users most commonly used a condom in their last sexual encounter and had the fewest sexual partners in the last 3 months (4 ± 4, P= .0003). Spit/saliva lubricant use was associated with positive rectal STI result. Silicone and oil-based lubricant users were more likely to report condomless receptive anal sex and to have a history of gonorrhea while spit/saliva lubricant use associated with positive rectal STI acquisition. A Lee, TW Gaither, ME Langston, et al. Lubrication Practices and Receptive Anal Sex: Implications for STI Transmission and Prevention. J Sex Med 2021;XX:XXX-XXX.