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P2Y12 Inhibitors in Acute Coronary Syndromes: A Real-World, Community-Based Comparison of Ischemic and Bleeding Outcomes

Randomized trials have shown superiority of the novel P2Y12 inhibitors over clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but clinical benefit in the community remains controversial. Our objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel to ticagrelor and prasugrel in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a real-world population. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with ACS who underwent PCI and were discharged with clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel from 2012 to 2018 within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We used Cox proportional hazard models with propensity-score matching to evaluate the association of the P2Y12 agent with the primary outcomes of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and bleeding events. The study included 15,476 patients (93.1% on clopidogrel, 3.6% on ticagrelor and 3.2% on prasugrel). Compared to the clopidogrel group, ticagrelorand prasugrel patients were younger with less comorbidities. In multivariable models with propensity-score matching, we found a lower risk of all-cause mortality in the ticagrelor vs the clopidogrel group (HR (95% CI) 0.43 (0.20-0.92)), but no differences in the other endpoints, and no difference between prasugrel and clopidogrel among any endpoints. A larger proportion of patients on ticagrelor or prasugrel switched to an alternative P2Y12 agent vs. clopidogrel (p < 0.01), and a higher level of persistence was seen among patients on clopidogrel vs. ticagrelor (p = 0.03) or prasugrel (p < 0.01). Among patients with ACS who underwent PCI, we observed a lower risk of all-cause mortality in patients treated with ticagrelor vs clopidogrel, but no difference in other clinical endpoints nor any differences in endpoints between prasugrel vs. clopidogrel users. These results suggest that further study is needed to identify an optimal P2Y12 inhibitor in a real-world population.

Authors: Sachdeva, Amit;Mutyala, Ratnabhushan;Mantri, Neha;Zhu, Shiyun;McNulty, Edward;Solomon, Matthew

J Interv Cardiol. 2023;2023:1147352. Epub 2023-05-20.

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