Rationale: People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may be more susceptible to air pollution exposure. However, no study has examined the association between long-term fine particulate matter exposure (≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and risk of cardiovascular events in this potentially vulnerable population. Objectives: To estimate the association between long-term fine particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular events among adults with COPD. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 169,714 adults with COPD who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan during 2007-2016. Electronic health record data were linked to 1 km modeled particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter exposure estimates. We fit Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, calendar year, smoking, body mass index, comorbidities, medications, and socioeconomic status. In low exposure analyses, we examined effects below the current regulation limit (12 μg/m3). Measurements and Main Results: Among adults with COPD, a 10-μg/m3 increase in 1-year mean fine particulate matter exposure was associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.20). Effects were stronger in low exposure analyses (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.56-2.27). Fine particulate matter exposure was not associated with acute myocardial infarction or stroke in overall analyses. Conclusions: Long-term fine particulate matter exposure was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among adults with COPD. Current regulations may not sufficiently protect those with COPD.