We conducted a study of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance biomarkers, including PFOA, in girls from Greater Cincinnati (CIN, N = 353) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA, N = 351). PFOA was measured in the baseline serum sample collected in 2004-2007 of 704 girls at age 6-8 years. Mixed effects models were used to derive the effect of PFOA on BMI, waist-to-height and waist-to-hip ratios over increasing age in this longitudinal cohort. Median PFOA serum concentrations were 7.3 (CIN) and 5.8 (SFBA) ng/mL, above the U.S. population median for children 12-19 years in 2005-2006 (3.8 ng/mL). Log-transformed serum PFOA had a strong inverse association with BMIz in the CIN girls (p = 0.0002) and the combined two-site data (p = 0.0008); the joint inverse effect of PFOA and Age*PFOA weakened at age at 10-11 years. However, in the SFBA group alone, the relationship was not significant (p = 0.1641) with no evidence of changing effect with age. The effect of PFOA on waist:height ratio was similar to BMIz at both sites, but we did not find a significant effect of PFOA on waist:hip ratio in either the CIN or SFBA girls. PFOA is associated with decreased BMI and waist:height ratio in young girls, but the strength of the relationship decreases with age. Site heterogeneity may be due to greater early life exposure in Cincinnati. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the CDC, the Public Health Service, or the US Department of Health and Human Services.