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Performance of the pooled cohort equation in South Asians: insights from a large integrated healthcare delivery system

South Asian ethnicity is associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk and has been identified as a “risk enhancer” in the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines. Risk estimation and statin eligibility in South Asians is not well understood; we studied the accuracy of 10-years ASCVD risk prediction by the pooled cohort equation (PCE), based on statin use, in a South Asian cohort. This is a retrospective cohort study of Kaiser Permanente Northern California South Asian members without existing ASCVD, age range 30-70, and 10-years follow up. ASCVD events were defined as myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular death. The cohort was stratified by statin use during the study period: never; at baseline and during follow-up; and only during follow-up. Predicted probability of ASCVD, using the PCE was calculated and compared to observed ASCVD events for low < 5.0%, borderline 5.0 to < 7.5%, intermediate 7.5 to < 20.0%, and high ≥ 20.0% risk groups. A total of 1835 South Asian members were included: 773 never on statin, 374 on statins at baseline and follow-up, and 688 on statins during follow-up only. ASCVD risk was underestimated by the PCE in low-risk groups: entire cohort: 1.8 versus 4.9%, p < 0.0001; on statin at baseline and follow-up: 2.58 versus 8.43%, p < 0.0001; on statin during follow-up only: 2.18 versus 7.77%, p < 0.0001; and never on statin: 1.37 versus 2.09%, p = 0.12. In this South Asian cohort, the PCE underestimated risk in South Asians, regardless of statin use, in the low risk ASCVD risk category.

Authors: Mantri, Neha M; Merchant, Maqdooda; Rana, Jamal S; Go, Alan S; Pursnani, Seema K

BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2022 Dec 23;22(1):566. Epub 2022-12-23.

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