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Population-based identification and temporal trend of children with primary nephrotic syndrome: The Kaiser Permanente nephrotic syndrome study

Limited population-based data exist about children with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS). We identified a cohort of children with primary NS receiving care in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system caring for >750,000 children. We identified all children <18 years between 1996 and 2012 who had nephrotic range proteinuria (urine ACR>3500 mg/g, urine PCR>3.5 mg/mg, 24-hour urine protein>3500 mg or urine dipstick>300 mg/dL) in laboratory databases or a diagnosis of NS in electronic health records. Nephrologists reviewed health records for clinical presentation and laboratory and biopsy results to confirm primary NS. Among 365 cases of confirmed NS, 179 had confirmed primary NS attributed to presumed minimal change disease (MCD) (72%), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (23%) or membranous nephropathy (MN) (5%). The overall incidence of primary NS was 1.47 (95% Confidence Interval:1.27-1.70) per 100,000 person-years. Biopsy data were available in 40% of cases. Median age for patients with primary NS was 6.9 (interquartile range:3.7 to 12.9) years, 43% were female and 26% were white, 13% black, 17% Asian/Pacific Islander, and 32% Hispanic. This population-based identification of children with primary NS leveraging electronic health records can provide a unique approach and platform for describing the natural history of NS and identifying determinants of outcomes in children with primary NS.

Authors: Parikh, Rishi V; Zheng, Sijie; Go, Alan S; et al.

PLoS One. 2021;16(10):e0257674. Epub 2021-10-14.

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