Thyroid hormones are critical for normal brain development. This study examined autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured in mid-pregnancy maternal serum and infant blood after birth. Three groups of children born in Orange County, CA in 2000-2001 were identified: ASD (n = 78), developmental delay (n = 45), and general population controls (GP) (n = 149). Samples were retrieved from prenatal and newborn screening specimen archives. Adjusted logistic regression models showed inverse associations between ASD and log transformed TSH levels in maternal serum samples (ASD vs. GP: OR [95 % CI] 0.33 [0.12-0.91], Early Onset ASD vs. GP: 0.31 [0.10-0.98]). Results for thyroid levels in newborn blood samples were similar though not significant (ASD vs. GP: 0.61 [0.18-2.04]).