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Prepregnancy Protein Source and BCAA Intake Are Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in the CARDIA Study

Diet quality and protein source are associated with type 2 diabetes, however relationships with GDM are less clear. This study aimed to determine whether prepregnancy diet quality and protein source are associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Participants were 1314 Black and White women without diabetes, who had at least one birth during 25 years of follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort study. The CARDIA A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS) was assessed in the overall cohort at enrollment and again at Year 7. Protein source and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) intake were assessed only at the Year 7 exam (n = 565). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between prepregnancy dietary factors and GDM. Women who developed GDM (n = 161) were more likely to have prepregnancy obesity and a family history of diabetes (p < 0.05). GDM was not associated with prepregnancy diet quality at enrollment (Year 0) (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.02) or Year 7 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.00) in an adjusted model. Conversely, BCAA intake (OR:1.59, 95% CI 1.03, 2.43) and animal protein intake (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.02, 1.10) as a proportion of total protein intake, were associated with increased odds of GDM, while proportion of plant protein was associated with decreased odds of GDM (OR: 0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.99). In conclusion, GDM is strongly associated with source of prepregnancy dietary protein intake but not APDQS in the CARDIA study.

Authors: Gadgil, Meghana D; Ingram, Katherine H; Appiah, Duke; Rudd, Jessica; Whitaker, Kara M; Bennett, Wendy L; Shikany, James M; Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Gunderson, Erica P

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Oct 29;19(21). Epub 2022-10-29.

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