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Prognostic Value of Echocardiography for Heart Failure and Death in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease

Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk of heart failure (HF) morbidity and mortality. Despite well-characterized abnormalities in cardiac structure in CKD, it remains unclear how to optimally leverage echocardiography to risk stratify CKD patients. We evaluated associations between echocardiographic parameters and risk of HF hospitalization and death using Cox proportional hazard models and forward selection with integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). The study included 3,505 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Mean age was 59 ± 11 years, HF prevalence was 10%, and mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) was 54 ± 9%. During median 11 (interquartile range: 8-12) years of follow-up, event rates per 100-person years for HF hospitalizations and death, respectively, were 9.4 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 7.9-11.3) and 8.9 (95% CI: 7.6-10.5) for participants with LVEF <40%, 3.5 (95% CI: 3.0-4.2) and 4.6 (95% CI: 4.0-5.2) for patients with LVEF 40% to 49%, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.7-2.1) and 3.1 (95% CI: 2.9-3.3) for patients with LVEF >50%. The rate of HF hospitalizations and deaths increased with lower eGFR across all LVEF categories. LV mass index, LVEF, and LV geometry had the strongest association with outcomes but provided modest incremental prognostic value to a baseline clinical model (IDI = 0.14 and ΔAUC = 0.017 for HF hospitalization, IDI = 0.12 and ΔAUC = 0.008 for death). Baseline echocardiographic parameters are independently associated with increased risk of subsequent HF morbidity and mortality but provide only marginal incremental prognostic utility beyond clinical characteristics in the setting of CKD.

Authors: Fitzpatrick, Jesse K; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Parikh, Rishi V; Tan, Thida C; Bansal, Nisha; Go, Alan S; CRIC Study Investigators,,

Am Heart J. 2022 06;248:84-96. Epub 2022-03-10.

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