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Prospective Cohort Study of Renin-Angiotensin System Blocker Usage after Hospitalized Acute Kidney Injury

The risk-benefit ratio of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy after AKI may be altered due to concerns regarding recurrent AKI. We evaluated, in a prospective cohort, the association between use (versus nonuse) of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and the subsequent risk of AKI and other adverse outcomes after hospitalizations with and without AKI. We studied 1538 patients recently discharged from the hospital who enrolled in the multicenter, prospective ASSESS-AKI study, with approximately half of patients experiencing AKI during the index hospitalization. All participants were seen at a baseline visit 3 months after their index hospitalization and were categorized at that time on whether they were using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers or not. We used multivariable Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, eGFR, urine protein-creatinine ratio, and use of other medications, to examine the association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use and subsequent risks of AKI, death, kidney disease progression, and adjudicated heart-failure events. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was 50% (386/769) among those with AKI during the index hospitalization and 47% (362/769) among those without. Among those with AKI during the index hospitalization, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use was not associated with a higher risk of recurrent hospitalized AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.13). Associations between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use and death, kidney disease progression, and adjudicated heart-failure events appeared similar in study participants who did and did not experience AKI during the index hospitalization (all interaction P values >0.05). The risk-benefit ratio of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker therapy after hospital discharge appears to be similar regardless of whether AKI occurred during the hospitalization.

Authors: Brar, Sandeep; Go, Alan S; ASSESS-AKI Investigators,; et al.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020 12 31;16(1):26-36. Epub 2020-12-03.

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