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Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Quality among Older Adults: Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) Study

We assessed cross-sectional differences in sleep quality and risk factors among Asian, Black, Latino, and White participants in the Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences (KHANDLE) Study. KHANDLE enrolled community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years living in northern California. Participants completed a modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to measure six sleep components and a global sleep score (scored 0-24). Covariates included age, sex, central adiposity, education, income, alcohol consumption, ever smoking, physical activity, and depression. Ordinal logistic regression was used to model sleep component scores across race/ethnic groups. Linear regression was used to assess racial/ethnic differences in global sleep score and the association between risk factors and global sleep score. 1,664 participants with a mean age of 76 (SD=7) and mean global sleep score of 6 (SD=4) were analyzed. Using Latinos as reference (highest average sleep score), Blacks had an average .96 (.37, 1.54) unit higher global sleep score (worse sleep) while Asians [β: .04 (-.56, .63)] and Whites [β: .28 (-.29, .84)] did not significantly differ. Compared with Latinos, Blacks and Asians had greater odds of a worse score on the sleep duration component; Blacks and Whites had greater odds of a worse score on the sleep disturbances component; and, Whites had greater odds of a worse score on the medication component. Risk factors for poor sleep did not differ by race/ethnicity except alcohol consumption (interaction P=.04), which was associated with poor sleep in Blacks only. In this cohort, racial/ethnic differences in sleep quality were common.

Authors: George, Kristen M; Peterson, Rachel L; Gilsanz, Paola; Mungas, Dan M; Glymour, M Maria; Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Whitmer, Rachel A

Ethn Dis. 2020 Summer;30(3):469-478. Epub 2020-07-09.

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