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Risk adjusted 30-day mortality and serious adverse event rates among a large, multi-center cohort of emergency department patients with acute heart failure

Admission rates for emergency department (ED) patients with acute heart failure (AHF) remain elevated. Use of a risk stratification tool could improve disposition decision making by identifying low-risk patients who may be safe for outpatient management. We performed a secondary analysis of a retrospective, multi-center cohort of 26,189 ED patients treated for AHF from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2018. We applied a 30-day risk model we previously developed and grouped patients into 4 categories (low, low/moderate, moderate, and high) of predicted 30-day risk of a serious adverse event (SAE). SAE consisted of death or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), intra-aorta balloon pump, endotracheal intubation, renal failure requiring dialysis, or acute coronary syndrome. We measured the 30-day mortality and composite SAE rates among patients by risk category according to ED disposition: direct discharge, discharge after observation, and hospital admission. The observed 30-day mortality and total SAE rates were less than 1% and 2%, respectively, among 25% of patients in the low and low/moderate risk groups. These rates did not vary significantly by ED disposition. An additional 23% of patients were moderate risk and experienced an approximate 2% 30-day mortality rate. Use of a risk stratification tool could help identify lower risk AHF patients who may be appropriate for ED discharge. These findings will help inform prospective testing to determine how this risk tool can augment ED decision making.

Authors: Sax, Dana R; Mark, Dustin G; Rana, Jamal S; Collins, Sean P; Huang, Jie; Reed, Mary E; CREST Network,

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open. 2022 Jun;3(3):e12742. Epub 2022-06-09.

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