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Risk of heart failure with preserved versus reduced ejection fraction in women with breast cancer

While clinical heart failure (HF) is recognized as an adverse effect from breast cancer (BC) treatment, sparse data exist on specific HF phenotypes in affected BC survivors. We examined risk of HF by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) status in women with a history of BC. 14,804 women diagnosed with all stages of invasive BC from 2005 to 2013 and with no history of HF were matched 1:5 to 74,034 women without BC on birth year, race, and ethnicity. LVEF values were extracted from echocardiography studies within 30 days before through 90 days after the HF clinical encounter. HF was stratified into HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF, LVEF ≥ 45%) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF, LVEF < 45%). Cumulative incidence rates (CIRs) were estimated with competing risk of overall death. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Mean time to HF diagnosis was 5.31 years (range 0.03-13.03) in cases and 5.25 years (range 0.01-12.94) in controls. 10-year CIRs were 1.2% and 0.9% for overall HF, 0.8% and 0.7% for HFpEF, and 0.4% and 0.2% for HFrEF in cases and controls, respectively. In fully adjusted models, an overall significant increased risk of HF in cases versus controls was observed (HR: 1.31, 95% CI 1.14, 1.51). The increased risk was seen for both HFrEF (HR: 1.59, 95% CI 1.22, 2.08) and HFpEF (HR: 1.22; 95% CI 1.03, 1.45). BC survivors experienced higher risk of HF compared with women without BC, and the risk persisted across LVEF phenotypes. Systematic cardio-oncology surveillance should be considered to mitigate this risk in BC patients.

Authors: Kwan, Marilyn L; Cheng, Richard K; Iribarren, Carlos; Shen, Hanjie; Laurent, Cecile A; Roh, Janise M; Hershman, Dawn L; Kushi, Lawrence H; Greenlee, Heather; Rana, Jamal S

Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2022 Jun;193(3):669-675. Epub 2022-04-16.

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