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Role of dietary patterns and acculturation in cancer risk and mortality among postmenopausal Hispanic women: results from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)

To investigate the association between dietary patterns and total and obesity-related cancers risk. Additionally, to examine if acculturation modifies this relationship. Dietary intake of postmenopausal Hispanic women (N=5,482) enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative was estimated from a Food Frequency Questionnaire and used to calculate dietary pattern scores; Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), Mexican Diet (MexD) score, alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), and the energy adjusted-Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™). Associations were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. 631 cancers and 396 obesity-related cancers were diagnosed over a mean-follow up of 12 years. Across dietary scores, there were no significant associations with cancer risk or mortality. Trend analysis suggest a potentially lower risk for total cancer related to the highest MexD score (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.45-1.04, P-trend=0.03), and lower risk for obesity-related cancer mortality related to the highest score category for MexD (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.37-1.16, P-trend=0.02), and aMED (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.45-1.67, P-trend=0.04). Further analysis suggests less acculturated women with higher MexD scores had 56% lower risk for any cancer (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88, P-trend=0.03) and 83% lower risk for cancer mortality (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.76, P-trend=0.01) compared to more acculturated Hispanic women. Dietary patterns were not associated with cancer risk and mortality in postmenopausal Hispanic women. Less-acculturated, Spanish-preferred speakers, who reported consuming a more traditional Mexican diet may experience a lower risk for cancer and cancer mortality.

Authors: Lopez-Pentecost, Melissa; Kroenke, Candyce H; Thomson, Cynthia A; et al.

Z Gesundh Wiss. 2022 Apr;30(4):811-822. Epub 2020-07-14.

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