Adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for developing heart failure (HF). However, longitudinal cardiac remodeling in CKD has not been well-characterized and its association with HF outcomes remains unknown. We evaluated the association between change in echocardiographic parameters between baseline and year 4 with the subsequent risk of HF hospitalization and death using Cox proportional hazard models in a landmark analysis of a prospective multicenter CKD cohort. Among 2673 participants, mean ± SD age was 61 ± 11 years, with 45% women, and 56% non-white. A total of 472 hospitalizations for HF and 776 deaths occurred during a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 8.0 (6.3-9.1) years. Patients hospitalized for HF experienced larger preceding absolute increases in left ventricular (LV) volumes and decreases in LV ejection fraction. Adverse changes in LV ejection fraction, LV cavity volume, LV mass index, and LV geometry were independently associated with an increased risk of HF hospitalization and death. Among adults with CKD, deleterious cardiac remodeling occurs over a relatively short timeframe and adverse remodeling is associated with increased risk of HF-related morbidity and mortality.