We hypothesized that the risk of colorectal cancer associated with meat preparation methods producing heterocyclic amines or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is modified by the CYP1A1 genotype alone or in combination with the GSTM1 genotype or the NAT2 imputed phenotype. A total of 952 rectal cancer cases and 1205 controls (between September 1997 and February 2002) and 1346 colon cancer cases and 1544 controls (between October 1991 and September 1994) from Utah and Northern California were recruited from a population-based case-control study. Detailed interviews ascertained lifestyle, medical history, and diet and we extracted DNA from whole blood. Risk of colorectal cancer decreased among men with the CYP1A1 *2 any variant genotype and the lowest intake of poultry and men and women with high use of white meat drippings. Risk increased among men with the CYP1A1 *1 (no variant) allele and high white meat mutagen index, but decreased among those with the CYP1A1 *2 genotype. Risk increased with a high white meat mutagen index among women with the CYP1A1 *2 genotype and the GSTM1 present genotype. Risk of colorectal cancer decreased with the CYP1A1 *2 genotype, the NAT2 slow phenotype, and the use of white meat or its drippings. The association of risk for colorectal cancer and selected red and white meat mutagen indices and the use of white meat drippings, or fried white meat variables was more evident within select combinations of the CYP1A1 genotype and either the GSTM1 genotype or NAT2 than with the CYP1A1 alone. Genetic susceptibility may modify the associations of some meat or meat preparation factors with the risk of colorectal cancer.