To describe the relationship between the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) use. Prospective cohort study. This study consisted of participants in the California Men’s Health Study. Those who completed surveys in 2002-2003 and 2006 were included. Men who self-reported use of aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, valdecoxib, celecoxib, and/or rofecoxib at least 3 days per week were considered NSAID users. Patients were categorized as non-users, former users, new users, or longer-term users based on survey responses. NSAID use was also categorized by type: any NSAIDs, aspirin, and/or non-aspirin NSAIDs. Age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, education, income, alcohol use, and Charlson comorbidity index score were included in the multivariate analysis as risk factors for AMD. A total of 51 371 men were included. Average follow-up time was 7.4 years. There were 292 (0.6%) and 1536 (3%) cases of exudative and nonexudative AMD, respectively. Longer-term use of any NSAID was associated with lower risk of exudative AMD (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.96, P = .029). New users of any NSAIDs (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.68-0.93, P = .0039) and aspirin (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.97, P = .018) had a lower risk of nonexudative AMD, although this trend did not persist in longer-term users. The relationship between exudative or nonexudative AMD and the remaining categories of NSAID use were not significant. The overall impact of NSAIDs on AMD incidence is small; however, the lower risk of exudative AMD in longer-term NSAID users may point to a protective effect and deserves further study as a possible mechanism to modulate disease risk.