A 1976 chemical factory explosion near Seveso, Italy exposed residents to high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetracholorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin). Dioxin is a known human carcinogen and potent endocrine disruptor. It is highly lipophilic and has a long half-life in humans. Much of what we know and can learn about the risks of dioxin exposure on human health arose from the tragic circumstances of Seveso. This review aims to describe the Seveso accident, summarize the results of 40 years of research on the health of the Seveso population since the accident, and discuss next-stage research on the health of Seveso residents, their children, and grandchildren.