Background: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) study offers an important opportunity to advance cancer research by extending the original WHI studies to examine survivorship in women diagnosed with cancer during their participation in WHI.Methods: The goals of LILAC are to (i) obtain cancer treatment information and long-term cancer outcomes for women diagnosed with one of eight selected cancers (breast, endometrial, ovarian, lung, and colorectal cancers, and melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia); (ii) augment the existing WHI biorepository with fixed tumor tissue from the solid tumor sites for cancers diagnosed since 2002; and (iii) develop, refine, and validate methods to use administrative data to capture treatment and recurrence data. Methods for accomplishing these goals are described, as are results from the initial LILAC participant survey.Results: A total of 9,934 WHI participants living with cancer were eligible for LILAC participation, of which 78% (N = 7,760) agreed to participate. Among the three most prevalent cancer types, 54% are breast cancer survivors, 11% are melanoma survivors, and 10% are survivors of colorectal cancer.Conclusions: In addition to describing this resource, we present pertinent lessons that may assist other investigators interested in embedding survivorship research into existing large epidemiologic cohorts.Impact: The LILAC resource offers a valuable opportunity for researchers to study cancer survivorship and issues pertinent to cancer survivors in future studies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 125-37. ©2017 AACR.