To examine the association of gain-of-function (GOF) and non-gain-of-function (non-GOF) TP53 mutations with prognosis of metastatic right-sided (RCC) versus left-sided colorectal cancer (LCC). This cohort study included patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) who had next-generation sequencing performed from November 2017 to January 2021. We defined R175H, R248W, R248Q, R249S, R273H, R273L, and R282W as GOF and all other mutp53 as non-GOF. We used Cox regression modeling to examine the association between GOF and non-GOF mutp53 and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, performance status, Charlson comorbidity index and receipt of chemotherapy. Of total 1,043 patients, 735 had tumors with mutp53 and 308 had wild-type p53 (wtp53). GOF was associated with worse OS than non-GOF mutp53 only in LCC (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.66 [95% CI, 1.20 to 2.29]), but not in RCC (HR = 0.79 [95% CI, 0.49 to 1.26]). Importantly, RCC was associated with worse OS than LCC only in the subset of patients whose CRC carried non-GOF (HR = 1.76 [95% CI, 1.30 to 2.39]), but not GOF mutp53 (HR = 0.92 [95% CI, 0.55 to 1.53]) or wtp53 (HR = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.60 to 1.28]). These associations were largely unchanged after also adjusting for RAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, and microsatellite instability-high. Poorer survival of patients with metastatic RCC versus LCC appeared to be restricted to the subset with non-GOF mutp53, whereas GOF versus non-GOF mutp53 was associated with poorer survival only among patients with LCC. This approach of collectively classifying mutp53 into GOF and non-GOF provides new insight for prognostic stratification and for understanding the mechanism of sidedness-dependent prognosis. If confirmed, future CRC clinical trials may benefit from incorporating this approach.