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Validation of Respiratory Rate-Oxygenation Index in Patients With COVID-19-Related Respiratory Failure

The respiratory rate-oxygenation (ROX) index is a fraction of oxygen saturation, Fio2, and respiratory rate that has been validated to predict receipt of invasive mechanical ventilation in patients receiving high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). This study aimed to validate ROX in a cohort of inpatients with COVID-19-related respiratory failure. Retrospective validation of the ROX index. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and 95% CIs of ROX for invasive mechanical ventilation any time during hospitalization. Twenty-one hospitals of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system. We identified adults with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction test within 3 weeks of, or during, hospitalization between February 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020. We calculated ROX at 12 hours after HFNC initiation. We grouped patients as low (≥ 4.88), intermediate (< 4.88 and ≥ 3.85), or high (< 3.85) risk using previously published thresholds. None. We identified 1,847 patients who had no limitation of life support. Of these, 525 (31.7%) received invasive mechanical ventilation any time during hospitalization and 511 died (27.7%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 12-hour ROX threshold (< 3.85) predicting invasive mechanical ventilation were 32.3% (95% CI, 28.5-36.3%), 89.8% (95% CI, 88.0-91.4%), 59.4% (95% CI, 53.8-64.9%), and 74.1% (95% CI, 71.8-76.3%), respectively. The 12-hour ROX index has a positive predictive value (59.4%) using threshold of less than 3.85 for COVID-19 patients needing invasive mechanical ventilation. Our health system has embedded ROX into the electronic health record to prioritize rounding during periods of inpatient surge.

Authors: Myers, Laura C; Mark, Dustin; Ley, Brett; Guarnieri, Michael; Hofmeister, Melinda; Paulson, Shirley; Marelich, Gregory; Liu, Vincent X

Crit Care Med. 2022 07 01;50(7):e638-e642. Epub 2022-02-07.

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