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A Phase II, single-blind, randomized, controlled study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine compared with ProQuad, administered in healthy children 4 to 6 years of age

This study will evaluate the immune response to the MMRVNS vaccines (formulated with different potencies) and the MMRV vaccine (pooled group) in terms of GMCs for antibodies to measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella viruses.

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Safety of Tetanus, Diphtheria, Acellular Pertussis with 5 Acellular Pertussis Components (Tdap5) Vaccination during Pregnancy: A Cohort Study using US Electronic Health Record Data

The primary objective of this study is to further evaluate the safety of Adacel vaccine among pregnant individuals exposed to Adacel during the third trimester of pregnancy and their offspring with regards to pre-defined pregnancy, birth, and neonatal outcomes.

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Clinical epidemiology and risk factors for critical outcomes among vaccinated and unvaccinated adults hospitalized with COVID-19-VISION Network, 10 States, June 2021-March 2023

The epidemiology of COVID-19 continues to develop with emerging variants, expanding population-level immunity, and advances in clinical care. We describe changes in the clinical epidemiology of hospitalized COVID-19 and risk factors for critical outcomes over time. We included adults aged…

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Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines at preventing emergency department or urgent care encounters and hospitalizations among immunocompromised adults: An observational study of real-world data across 10 US states from August-December 2021

Immunocompromised (IC) persons are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes and are less protected by 1-2 COVID-19 vaccine doses than are immunocompetent (non-IC) persons. We compared vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended COVID-19 of 2-3 mRNA and 1-2 viral-vector…

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Effectiveness of Monovalent and Bivalent mRNA Vaccines in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters Among Children Aged 6 Months-5 Years – VISION Network, United States, July 2022-June 2023

On June 19, 2022, the original monovalent mRNA COVID-19 vaccines were approved as a primary series for children aged 6 months-4 years (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 6 months-5 years (Moderna) based on safety, immunobridging, and limited efficacy data from clinical trials. On…

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Relative Vaccine Effectiveness of Adjuvanted Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (aIIV4) vs High-Dose Quadrivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine (HD-IIV4) for Prevention of Lab-confirmed Influenza Medical Encounters

In this study, each objective will be evaluated for each season individually and in a combined analysis. The primary objective is to assess the relative vaccine effectiveness of aIIV4 vs HD-IIV4 for prevention of polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) confirmed influenza. The…

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Estimates of Bivalent mRNA Vaccine Durability in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization and Critical Illness Among Adults with and Without Immunocompromising Conditions – VISION Network, September 2022-April 2023

On September 1, 2022, CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended a single bivalent mRNA COVID-19 booster dose for persons aged ≥12 years who had completed at least a monovalent primary series. Early vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates among adults…

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Early Estimates of Bivalent mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department or Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Immunocompetent Adults – VISION Network, Nine States, September-November 2022

During June-October 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 sublineage accounted for most of the sequenced viral genomes in the United States, with further Omicron sublineage diversification through November 2022.* Bivalent mRNA vaccines contain an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain component plus an updated…

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COVID-19 Vaccine Safety Surveillance in Early Pregnancy in the United States: Design Factors Affecting the Association Between Vaccine and Spontaneous Abortion

In the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), we previously reported no association between COVID-19 vaccination in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortion (SAB). The current study aims to understand how time since vaccine roll-out or other methodologic factors could affect results. Using…

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Vaccine effectiveness against influenza-associated urgent care, emergency department, and hospital encounters during the 2021-2022 season, VISION Network

Following historically low influenza activity during the 2020-2021 season, the United States saw an increase in influenza circulating during the 2021-2022 season. Most viruses belonged to the influenza A(H3N2) 3C.2a1b 2a.2 subclade. We conducted a test-negative case-control analysis among adults…

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Early Estimates of Bivalent mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department or Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Immunocompetent Adults – VISION Network, Nine States, September-November 2022

During June-October 2022, the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5 sublineage accounted for most of the sequenced viral genomes in the United States, with further Omicron sublineage diversification through November 2022.* Bivalent mRNA vaccines contain an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 strain component plus an updated…

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VSD Infrastructure

We conduct administrative tasks, data management, and contribute to vaccine safety assessments to support the management and development of the ongoing work of the VSD. This includes producing and maintaining a high-quality electronic data infrastructure encompassing health plan members of…

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Effectiveness of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults During SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, December 2021-August 2022

Persons with moderate-to-severe immunocompromising conditions might have reduced protection after COVID-19 vaccination, compared with persons without immunocompromising conditions (1-3). On August 13, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended that adults with immunocompromising conditions receive an expanded primary…

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Estimation of COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Effectiveness Against Medically Attended COVID-19 in Pregnancy During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance in the United States

Pregnant people are at high risk for severe COVID-19 but were excluded from mRNA vaccine trials; data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) are needed. To evaluate the estimated effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against medically attended COVID-19 among pregnant people during…

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Effectiveness of 2, 3, and 4 COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine Doses Among Immunocompetent Adults During Periods when SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 and BA.2/BA.2.12.1 Sublineages Predominated – VISION Network, 10 States, December 2021-June 2022

The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, was first identified in the United States in November 2021, with the BA.1 sublineage (including BA.1.1) causing the largest surge in COVID-19 cases to date. Omicron sublineages BA.2 and…

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Effectiveness of Homologous and Heterologous COVID-19 Booster Doses Following 1 Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) Vaccine Dose Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults – VISION Network, 10 States, December 2021-March 2022

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a…

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Effectiveness of COVID-19 Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination in Preventing COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Nonimmunocompromised Children and Adolescents Aged 5-17 Years – VISION Network, 10 States, April 2021-January 2022

The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17…

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Incidence and Estimated Vaccine Effectiveness Against Hospitalizations for All-Cause Pneumonia Among Older US Adults Who Were Vaccinated and Not Vaccinated With 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

Following routine use of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in children in 2010, invasive pneumococcal disease rates have decreased substantially in children and adults. In 2014, the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices recommended routine use of PCV13 among adults aged…

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Waning 2-Dose and 3-Dose Effectiveness of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, August 2021-January 2022

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection after…

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Safety of recombinant quadrivalent influenza vaccine compared to inactivated influenza vaccine in Chinese adults: An observational study

Recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV) has been in use in US adults since 2013. This study evaluated the safety of quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4, Flublok® Quadrivalent, Sanofi Pasteur) compared with standard-dose quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (SD-IIV4) in self-identified Chinese adults…

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Effectiveness of a Third Dose of mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department and Urgent Care Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During Periods of Delta and Omicron Variant Predominance – VISION Network, 10 States, August 2021-January 2022

Estimates of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) have declined in recent months (1,2) because of waning vaccine induced immunity over time,* possible increased immune evasion by SARS-CoV-2 variants (3), or a combination of these and other factors. CDC recommends that…

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Association of the COVID-19 Pandemic With Routine Childhood Vaccination Rates and Proportion Up to Date With Vaccinations Across 8 US Health Systems in the Vaccine Safety Datalink

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected routine vaccine delivery in the US and globally. The magnitude of these disruptions and their association with childhood vaccination coverage are unclear. To compare trends in pediatric vaccination before and during the pandemic and to…

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Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 Among Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19-Like Illness with Infection-Induced or mRNA Vaccine-Induced SARS-CoV-2 Immunity – Nine States, January-September 2021

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared…

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Effectiveness of 2-Dose Vaccination with mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines Against COVID-19-Associated Hospitalizations Among Immunocompromised Adults – Nine States, January-September 2021

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might…

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The Adjuvanted Recombinant Zoster Vaccine in Adults Aged ≥65 Years Previously Vaccinated With a Live-Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine

Efficacy of the live-attenuated herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine (ZVL) wanes substantially over time. We evaluated immunogenicity and safety of the adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in previous ZVL recipients. Adults aged ≥65 years who were previously vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years earlier…

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Interim Estimates of COVID-19 Vaccine Effectiveness Against COVID-19-Associated Emergency Department or Urgent Care Clinic Encounters and Hospitalizations Among Adults During SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant Predominance – Nine States, June-August 2021

Data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness (VE) since the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating strain in the United States are limited (1-3). CDC used the VISION Network* to examine medical encounters (32,867)…

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A phase 3, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of 3 lots of 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in pneumococcal vaccine-naive adults 18 through 49 years of age

Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), including the 13-valent PCV (PCV13), has considerably reduced pneumococcal disease burden. However, additional serotypes not in PCV13 continue to present a substantial disease burden. The 20-valent PCV (PCV20) was developed to expand protection against…

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Use of COVID-19 Vaccines After Reports of Adverse Events Among Adult Recipients of Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) and mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna): Update from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices – United States, July 2021

In December 2020, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines, and in February 2021, FDA issued an EUA for the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. After each EUA, the…

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A Phase 3 International, Multicenter, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of 9vHPV Vaccine Administered as 2-dose Regimen with Extended Dosing Intervals in 9- to 14-Year-Old Boys and Girls Compared with a Standard 3-dose

This study will evaluate extended 2-dose regimens in boys and girls ages 10 to 15 who previously received 1 dose of 9vHPV vaccine and did not complete the series and in HPV vaccine-naive boys and girls ages 9 to 14.…

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Concomitant administration of a liquid formulation of human rotavirus vaccine (porcine circovirus-free) with routine childhood vaccines in infants in the United States: Results from a phase 3, randomized trial

In response to the detection of porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV-1) in the human rotavirus vaccine (HRV), a PCV-free HRV (no detection of PCV-1 and PCV-2 according to the detection limit of tests used) was developed. Liquid (Liq) PCV-free HRV…

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Shouting at each other into the void: A linguistic network analysis of vaccine hesitance and support in online discourse regarding California law SB277

In 2015, California passed Senate Bill 277 and became the third state in the United States to ban all nonmedical exemptions from school immunization requirements, effectively prohibiting religious and personal belief exemptions. This attracted grassroots opposition and considerable debate among…

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Identification and description of mumps cases in a non-outbreak setting and evaluation of the effectiveness of mumps-containing vaccines over time

Mumps outbreaks among previously vaccinated young adults raise concerns regarding waning vaccine immunity. This study identified, described and assessed the changing incidence of mumps cases following mumps-containing vaccination (MMR/MMRV) in a non-mumps outbreak setting. Potential cases between 1996 and 2018…

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Homeschooling parents in California: Attitudes, beliefs and behaviors associated with child’s vaccination status

Senate Bill 277 (SB277) banned nonmedical exemptions from school-entry vaccination requirements for children attending classroom-based schools in California, but excluded homeschooled children from vaccination requirements. Thus, it was hypothesized that more parents would choose to homeschool to avoid vaccination requirements…

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Background rates of maternal, fetal, neonatal, and infant outcomes and events of interest to inform maternal immunization clinical trials

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines is currently preparing for clinical trials that evaluate the safety/reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a respiratory syncytial virus maternal vaccine candidate in pregnant women. Robust epidemiological data is needed to support the interpretation of maternal and neonatal outcomes in…

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Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccine types by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic factors in women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3/AIS), Alameda County, California, United States

We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in prevalence of oncogenic HPV types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (16/18) and nonavalent HPV vaccine (31/33/45/52/58) in women diagnosed with CIN2/3/AIS after quadrivalent HPV vaccine introduction (2008-2015). Typing data from 1810 cervical tissue specimen…

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The impact of reactogenicity after the first dose of recombinant zoster vaccine upon the physical functioning and quality of life of older adults: an open phase III trial

Herpes zoster and its related complications are associated with significant medical burden, which negatively affects quality of life and daily functioning of the patients. The recently licensed recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) offers high efficacy but is associated with local and…

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Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing Influenza-associated Hospitalizations During Pregnancy: A Multi-country Retrospective Test Negative Design Study, 2010-2016

To date, no study has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy. The Pregnancy Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (PREVENT) consisted of public health or healthcare systems with integrated laboratory, medical, and vaccination records in Australia, Canada…

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Exploring California’s new law eliminating personal belief exemptions to childhood vaccines and vaccine decision-making among homeschooling mothers in California

California's Senate Bill 277 (SB-277) law eliminated the personal belief exemption to school immunization requirements. A potential consequence may be that parents choose homeschooling to avoid immunization. Vaccine attitudes and behaviors have not been well studied among the home-schooling population.…

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Estimating Vaccine Effectiveness Against Hospitalized Influenza During Pregnancy: Multicountry Protocol for a Retrospective Cohort Study

Although pregnant women are believed to have elevated risks of severe influenza infection and are targeted for influenza vaccination, no study to date has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy, primarily because this outcome poses…

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Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States

Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries currently using pentavalent DTaP combination vaccines. This open-label, randomized, multicenter study (NCT02096263) conducted in…

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Coadministration of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults previously immunized with polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine 23: a randomized clinical trial

Immune responses to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) in older adults may vary with coadministration and previous pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination. This study assessed safety and noninferiority of immune responses to coadministered PCV13 and QIV…

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Immunogenicity and safety of the Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine co-administered with human rotavirus, hepatitis A and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: results from a phase III, randomized, multicenter study in infants

This phase III, open-label, randomized study (NCT01978093) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of co-administered Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenCY-TT) with human rotavirus vaccine (HRV), hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate…

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Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in splenectomized or hyposplenic children and adolescents: Results of a phase III, open, non-randomized study

Individuals with functional or anatomic asplenia are at high risk for meningococcal disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 1 and 2 doses of the quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in this high-risk…

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Association Between Estimated Cumulative Vaccine Antigen Exposure Through the First 23 Months of Life and Non-Vaccine-Targeted Infections From 24 Through 47 Months of Age

Some parents are concerned that multiple vaccines in early childhood could weaken their child's immune system. Biological data suggest that increased vaccine antigen exposure could increase the risk for infections not targeted by vaccines. To examine estimated cumulative vaccine antigen…

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Postlicensure Safety Surveillance of Congenital Anomaly and Miscarriage Among Pregnancies Exposed to Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

Limited safety data are available on inadvertent exposure to quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive observational postlicensure safety surveillance study in Kaiser Permanente Southern California and Northern California to assess congenital anomaly and miscarriage among…

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Lot-to-lot consistency, safety and immunogenicity of 3 lots of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: results from a phase III randomized, multicenter study in infants

Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is included in routine pediatric immunization schedule in the United States. Previous vaccine shortages have created the need for additional options for Hib vaccination. This phase III, randomized, multi-centered study (NCT01000974) evaluated the…

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Lot-to-Lot Consistency, Safety, Tolerability, and Immunogenicity of an Investigational Hexavalent Vaccine in US Infants

This multicenter phase III study (NCT01340937) evaluated the consistency of immune responses to 3 separate lots of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis 5, inactivated poliovirus vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and hepatitis B (DTaP5-IPV-Hib-HepB), an investigational hexavalent vaccine (HV). Healthy infants were…

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Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies

Vaccines are increasingly targeted toward women of reproductive age, and vaccines to prevent influenza and pertussis are recommended during pregnancy. Prelicensure clinical trials typically have not included pregnant women, and when they are included, trials cannot detect rare events. Thus,…

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Integrating database knowledge and epidemiological design to improve the implementation of data mining methods that evaluate vaccine safety in large healthcare databases

Large healthcare databases maintained by health plans have been widely used to conduct customized protocol-based epidemiological safety studies as well as targeted routine sequential monitoring of suspected adverse events for newly licensed vaccines. These databases also offer a rich data…

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Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3 and Adenocarcinoma in situ: Comparison of ICD-9 Codes and Pathology Results – Kaiser Permanente, United States, 2000-2005

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3+ (CIN3+) and adenocarcinoma in situ incidence will be an important measure of HPV vaccine impact. Integrated healthcare delivery systems, such as Kaiser Permanente, could be used to monitor CIN3+ trends; however, limited evaluations of data…

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Adapting Group Sequential Methods to Observational Postlicensure Vaccine Safety Surveillance: Results of a Pentavalent Combination DTaP-IPV-Hib Vaccine Safety Study

To address gaps in traditional postlicensure vaccine safety surveillance and to promote rapid signal identification, new prospective monitoring systems using large health-care database cohorts have been developed. We newly adapted clinical trial group sequential methods to this observational setting in…

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Immunogenicity and Safety of Two Tetravalent (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella) Vaccines Co-Administered with Hepatitis A and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines to Children 12 14 Months of Age

BACKGROUND:: This study compared single-dose tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (MMRV) vaccine, Priorix-Tetra, stored refrigerated (GSK+4C) or frozen (GSK 20C), with ProQuad (Merck-20C), when co-administered with hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS:: Multicenter, observer-blind Phase…

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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly with measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine in healthy toddlers

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease can have devastating outcomes, especially in high-risk groups such as infants. As infants are recommended to receive multiple vaccines during a single office visit, this phase 3 study assessed the safety and immune response to MenACWY-CRM…

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Risk of Confirmed Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Receipt of Monovalent Inactivated Influenza A (H1N1) and Seasonal Influenza Vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, 2009-2010

An increased risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) following administration of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine led to a heightened focus on GBS when monovalent vaccines against a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin were introduced in 2009. GBS…

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Comparative immunogenicity and safety of different multivalent component pertussis vaccine formulations and a 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine in infants and toddlers: A randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter study

BACKGROUND: Pentavalent and quadrivalent combination vaccine formulations from the same manufacturer (DTaP-IPV/Hib [PENTA], DTaP-IPV [QUAD]) were investigated as to whether they were sufficiently interchangeable to tailor use to local preference or availability. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, open-label, 4-armed, multicenter study…

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An open-label, randomized, multi-center study of the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-IPV (Kinrix) co-administered with MMR vaccine with or without varicella vaccine in healthy pre-school age children

BACKGROUND: In the US, it is recommended that 4-6 year old children receive diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella (V), and influenza vaccines. Data relating to the concomitant administration of combination DTaP-IPV vaccine (Kinrix; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) and…

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Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine When Coadministered With Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular Pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae Type B Vaccines in Children 15 Months of Age

BACKGROUND: This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age. METHODS: This was an open-labeled,…

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Vaccine safety in special populations

Studies evaluating the safety of vaccines routinely administered to a population of healthy infants and children may not provide adequate reassurance for members of special populations such as premature infants and children with chronic conditions. However, evaluating the safety of…

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Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational and a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in children 2-10 years of age

BACKGROUND: Routine administration of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine to adolescents and certain high risk groups is recommended in the United States and Canada. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM-197 (MenACWY-CRM) with…

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Lack of association between acellular pertussis vaccine and seizures in early childhood

OBJECTIVES: Receipt of diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis [DTP]) is associated with seizures. Limited population-based studies have been conducted on the risk for seizures after receipt of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis [DTaP]). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from…

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Post-marketing safety evaluation of a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 3-component acellular pertussis vaccine administered to a cohort of adolescents in a United States health maintenance organization

BACKGROUND: Prelicensure clinical studies may not include sufficient numbers of subjects to assess the potential for rare postvaccination adverse events. The aim of this postlicensure study (NCT00297856) was to evaluate uncommon outcomes following vaccination with a tetanus, reduced-antigen-content diphtheria, and…

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Compliance with multiple-dose vaccine schedules among older children, adolescents, and adults: results from a vaccine safety datalink study

OBJECTIVES: We studied compliance with multiple-dose vaccine schedules, assessed factors associated with noncompliance, and examined timeliness of series completion among older children, adolescents, and adults. METHODS: We conducted a large, multisite, retrospective cohort study of older children, adolescents, and adults…

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Case-control study of antibiotic use and subsequent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients

OBJECTIVE: To determine which antibiotics increase or decrease the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Nonprofit, integrated healthcare delivery system in Northern California. PATIENTS: Study participants included patients with cases of hospital-acquired CDAD that occurred…

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Effectiveness of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than 5 years of age for prevention of pneumonia: updated analysis using World Health Organization standardized interpretation of chest radiographs

BACKGROUND: A World Health Organization (WHO) working group in 2001 developed a method for standardizing interpretation of chest radiographs in children for epidemiologic purposes. We reevaluated radiographs from the Kaiser Permanente Pneumococcal Efficacy trial using this method. METHODS: Seven-valent pneumococcal…

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Effectiveness of influenza vaccine during pregnancy in preventing hospitalizations and outpatient visits for respiratory illness in pregnant women and their infants

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends influenza vaccination for women who will be in the second or third trimester of pregnancy during the influenza season. We analyzed hospital admissions with principal…

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Lack of association between receipt of conjugate haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (HbOC) in infancy and risk of type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes: long term follow-up of the HbOC efficacy trial cohort

We evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with HbOC Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine on the risk of onset of type 1 juvenile diabetes later in life by examining data from a large controlled prospective Phase III clinical…

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Safety and immunogenicity of oligosaccharide conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (HbOC) vaccine in infancy. The Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Pediatrics Group

The safety and immunogenicity of the HbOC conjugate vaccine have been evaluated in a study population of 61,080 children in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of Northern California. Half of the population served as controls. The vaccine was given…

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Efficacy in infancy of oligosaccharide conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (HbOC) vaccine in a United States population of 61,080 children. The Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Pediatrics Group

The efficacy of the HbOC conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine was evaluated in a study population of 61,080 infants in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Between February, 1988, and June, 1990, the HbOC vaccine was given…

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