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Pre-diagnosis lipid levels and mortality after obesity-related cancer diagnosis in the Women’s Health Initiative cardiovascular disease biomarker cohort

Published studies have demonstrated inconclusive relationships between serum lipid levels and mortality after cancer. The primary objective was to evaluate the relationship between fasting lipid levels and mortality after cancer. Data were obtained on baseline lipids and outcomes after cancer…

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Association between dietary inflammatory potential and mortality after cancer diagnosis in the Women’s Health Initiative

Chronic inflammation is implicated in cancer prognosis and can be modulated by diet. We examined associations between post-diagnosis dietary inflammatory potential and mortality outcomes among post-menopausal women diagnosed with cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index…

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CANcer Cachexia Action Network/CANCAN

This study will include 1500 patients with advanced lung, pancreatic, or colorectal cancer at high risk of cachexia for detailed measurement via biospecimen collection, remote monitoring, questionnaire, and medical record review. The aims are to: identify distinct cachexia subtypes with…

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Individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status and risk of aggressive breast cancer subtypes in a pooled cohort of women from Kaiser Permanente Northern California

Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with a higher risk of aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtypes, but few studies have examined the independent effects of both neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (nSES) and individual-level SES measures. This study included 5547 women…

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Association of germline genetic variants with breast cancer-specific survival in patient subgroups defined by clinic-pathological variables related to tumor biology and type of systemic treatment

Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients. We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups…

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Low-fat dietary pattern and breast cancer mortality by metabolic syndrome components: a secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomised trial

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) dietary modification (DM) randomised trial, the low-fat dietary intervention reduced deaths from breast cancer (P = 0.02). Extending these findings, secondary analysis examined dietary intervention influence on breast cancer mortality by metabolic syndrome (MS) components. In…

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Alignment of dietary patterns with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

Poor diet quality is a leading risk factor for death in the United States. We examined the association between Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) scores and death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, Alzheimer disease, and dementia not otherwise specified…

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Recruitment strategies and design considerations in a trial of resistance training to prevent dose-limiting toxicities in colon cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

Low muscle is associated with an increased risk of chemotherapy-related dose limiting toxicities (DLT) in cancer patients. Resistance training (RT) improves muscle mass; however, the effects of RT on preventing DLTs and dose reductions in colon cancer patients has not…

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Evaluation of automated computed tomography segmentation to assess body composition and mortality associations in cancer patients

Body composition from computed tomography (CT) scans is associated with cancer outcomes including surgical complications, chemotoxicity, and survival. Most studies manually segment CT scans, but Automatic Body composition Analyser using Computed tomography image Segmentation (ABACS) software automatically segments muscle and…

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Prediagnosis social support, social integration, living status, and colorectal cancer mortality in postmenopausal women from the women’s health initiative

We evaluated associations between perceived social support, social integration, living alone, and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes in postmenopausal women. The study included 1431 women from the Women's Health Initiative who were diagnosed from 1993 through 2017 with stage I through…

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Post-cancer diagnosis dietary inflammatory potential is associated with survival among women diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

Dietary factors may influence colorectal cancer (CRC) survival through effects on inflammation. We examined the association between post-CRC diagnosis inflammatory potential of diet and all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in the Women's Health Initiative. The study included 463 postmenopausal women who…

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Post diagnosis loss of skeletal muscle, but not adipose tissue, is associated with shorter survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer is associated with development of cachexia, a wasting syndrome thought to limit survival. Few studies have longitudinally quantified peripheral tissues or identified biomarkers predictive of future tissue wasting. Adipose and muscle tissue were measured by computed tomography (CT)…

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Statins as a free pass: Body mass index and other cardiovascular risk factors among lipid-lowering medication users and nonusers in the California Men’s Health Study

To lower risk from cardiovascular disease (CVD), national guidelines recommend lifestyle changes followed by use of lipid-lowering medications when appropriate. Previous studies have questioned whether individuals taking these medications are less likely to modify their dietary intake and physical activity,…

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Guideline-concordant endometrial cancer treatment and survival in the Women’s Health Initiative Life and Longevity After Cancer study

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) cohort, we examined predictors of guideline-concordant treatment among endometrial cancer (EC) survivors and associations between receipt of guideline-concordant treatment and survival. Receipt of guideline-concordant EC treatment was defined…

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Associations of pre-existing co-morbidities with skeletal muscle mass and radiodensity in patients with non-metastatic colorectal cancer

Co-morbidities and computerized tomography-measured muscle abnormalities are both common in cancer patients and independently adversely influence clinical outcomes. Muscle abnormalities are also evident in other diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. This study examined for the first time the association…

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Influence of smoking, body mass index and other factors on the preventive effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal cancer risk

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) use has consistently been associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, studies showed inconsistent results on which cohort of individuals may benefit most. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to systematically test for the…

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Reparameterization of PAM50 expression identifies novel breast tumor dimensions and leads to discovery of a genomewide significant breast cancer locus at 12q15

Background: Breast tumor subtyping has failed to provide impact in susceptibility genetics. The PAM50 assay categorizes breast tumors into: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched and Basal-like. However, tumors are often more complex than simple categorization can describe. The identification of…

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Methodological considerations for disentangling a risk factor’s influence on disease incidence versus postdiagnosis survival: The example of obesity and breast and colorectal cancer mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative

Often, studies modeling an exposure's influence on time to disease-specific death from study enrollment are incorrectly interpreted as if based on time to death from disease diagnosis. We studied 151,996 postmenopausal women without breast or colorectal cancer in the Women's…

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Research priorities in cancer cachexia: The University of Rochester Cancer Center NCI Community Oncology Research Program Research Base Symposium on Cancer Cachexia and Sarcopenia

Cancer cachexia remains understudied and there are no standard treatments available despite the publication of an international consensus definition and the completion of several large phase III intervention trials in the past 6 years. In September 2015, The University of…

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Muscle mass at the time of diagnosis of nonmetastatic colon cancer and early discontinuation of chemotherapy, delays, and dose reductions on adjuvant FOLFOX: The C-SCANS study

For many chemotherapy regimens dosed based on body surface area (BSA), patients experience dose reductions or delays or discontinue treatment, thereby reducing survival. Consideration of body composition may be useful in individualizing chemotherapy dosing, but to the authors' knowledge few…

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WHI Cancer Survivor Cohort

The primary goal of this research project is to create an infrastructure within WHI to build a resource for the study of molecular epidemiology and cancer survivorship. Cancer survivors will be followed annually with surveys; tumor tissue will be acquired;…

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MsFLASH: Living a Healthy Menopause

The aims of this study are: 1) Conduct a 4-arm, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial among postmenopausal women with vaginitis symptoms (moderate/severe vaginal dryness, burning, itching, pain or dyspareunia in the absence of infection) to compare the efficacy of: (a) the…

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Validation of self-reported comorbidity status of breast cancer patients with medical records: the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC)

To compare information from self-report and electronic medical records for four common comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, myocardial infarction, and other heart diseases). We pooled data from two multiethnic studies (one case-control and one survivor cohort) enrolling 1,936 women diagnosed with breast…

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The Comparative Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Strategies to Reduce Postpartum Weight Retention in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

To compare the effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies addressing postpartum weight retention for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivered at the health system level: mailed recommendations (usual care) versus usual care plus a Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-derived lifestyle intervention.…

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Fine-Mapping of Common Genetic Variants Associated with Colorectal Tumor Risk Identified Potential Functional Variants

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with colorectal cancer risk. These SNPs may tag correlated variants with biological importance. Fine-mapping around GWAS loci can facilitate detection of functional candidates and additional independent risk…

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A Candidate-Pathway Approach to Identify Gene-Environment Interactions: Analyses of Colon Cancer Risk and Survival

Genetic association studies have traditionally focused on associations between individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease. Standard analysis ignores interactions between multiple SNPs and environmental exposures explaining a small portion of disease heritability: the often-cited issue of "missing heritability." We…

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Effects of estrogen and venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life in healthy postmenopausal women with hot flashes: a placebo-controlled randomized trial

This study aims to evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (E2) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of low-dose oral 17?-E2 0.5…

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Cancer Incidence and Mortality during the intervention and post intervention periods of the Women’s Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial

The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) low-fat (20% kcal) dietary modification (DM) trial (1993-2005) demonstrated a nonsignificant reduction in breast cancer, a nominally significant reduction in ovarian cancer, and no effect on other cancers (mean 8.3 years intervention). Consent to nonintervention…

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Better postdiagnosis diet quality is associated with reduced risk of death among postmenopausal women with invasive breast cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

Few studies have evaluated whether adherence to dietary recommendations is associated with mortality among cancer survivors. In breast cancer survivors, we examined how postdiagnosis Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005 scores were associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Our prospective cohort study…

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A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) study

Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at high risk of developing diabetes later in life. After a GDM diagnosis, women receive prenatal care to control their blood glucose levels via diet, physical activity and medications. Continuing such lifestyle skills into…

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Soy food intake after diagnosis of breast cancer and survival: an in-depth analysis of combined evidence from cohort studies of US and Chinese women

BACKGROUND: Soy isoflavones have antiestrogenic and anticancer properties but also possess estrogen-like properties, which has raised concern about soy food consumption among breast cancer survivors. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the association between postdiagnosis soy food consumption and breast cancer outcomes…

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Associations between genetic variation in RUNX1, RUNX2, RUNX3, MAPK1 and eIF4E and riskof colon and rectal cancer: additional support for a TGF-beta-signaling pathway

The Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 1 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) are potentially involved in tumorigenesis. We evaluated genetic variation in RUNX1 (40 tagSNPs), RUNX2 (19 tagSNPs), RUNX3 (9 tagSNPs), MAPK1 (6 tagSNPs), eIF4E…

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Vegetable intake is associated with reduced breast cancer recurrence in tamoxifen users: a secondary analysis from the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study

The protective effect of vegetables on the risk of breast cancer recurrence is uncertain. We sought to evaluate the association between breast cancer recurrence and vegetable intake including analyses stratified on tamoxifen use. Experimental evidence of anti-carcinogenic activity of phytochemicals…

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Alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer: the life after cancer epidemiology study

PURPOSE: To examine the association of alcohol consumption after breast cancer diagnosis with recurrence and mortality among early-stage breast cancer survivors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients included 1,897 LACE study participants diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer between 1997 and 2000 and…

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Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men’s Health Study

BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among…

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Vasomotor symptoms, adoption of a low-fat dietary pattern, and risk of invasive breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the Women’s Health Initiative randomized controlled dietary modification trial

PURPOSE: To assess whether the effect of a low-fat dietary pattern on breast cancer incidence varied by report of baseline vasomotor symptoms. METHODS: Postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years enrolled onto the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Dietary Modification trial…

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Dietary change and reduced breast cancer events among women without hot flashes after treatment of early-stage breast cancer: subgroup analysis of the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living Study

BACKGROUND: A diet high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat decreased additional risk of secondary breast cancer events in women without hot flashes (HF-) compared with that in women with hot flashes (HF+), possibly through lowered concentrations…

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Generational status and duration of residence predict diabetes prevalence among Latinos: the California Men’s Health Study

BACKGROUND: Diabetes disproportionately affects Latinos. However, examining Latinos as one group obscures important intra-group differences. This study examined how generational status, duration of US residence, and language preference are associated with diabetes prevalence and to what extent these explain the…

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Comparison of baseline dietary intake of Hispanic and matched non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors enrolled in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living study

OBJECTIVE: To assess the reported baseline dietary intake of Hispanic and non-Hispanic white breast cancer survivors in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study, a randomized plant-based dietary intervention clinical trial. DESIGN: Dietary data from 4 days repeated 24-hour recalls…

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Post-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer recurrence in a prospective cohort study of early stage breast cancer survivors

PURPOSE: We examined the association between post-diagnosis statin use (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] inhibitors) and risk of breast cancer recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 1945 early stage breast cancer survivors participating in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study.…

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Associations between age-related nuclear cataract and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in the Carotenoids in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study, an Ancillary Study of the Women’s Health Initiative

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between nuclear cataract (determined from slitlamp photographs between May 2001 and January 2004) and lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum in patients between 1994 and 1998 and macula between 2001 and 2004. DESIGN: A…

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Weight gain and recovery of pre-cancer weight after breast cancer treatments: evidence from the women’s healthy eating and living (WHEL) study

PURPOSE: To examine predictors of weight gain following breast cancer diagnosis and subsequent return to pre-cancer weight. OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) the associations of anti-neoplastic chemotherapy and/or, Tamoxifen((R)) therapy on weight change following breast cancer diagnosis, (2) whether chemotherapy modified…

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Influence of a diet very high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in fat on prognosis following treatment for breast cancer: the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) randomized trial

CONTEXT: Evidence is lacking that a dietary pattern high in vegetables, fruit, and fiber and low in total fat can influence breast cancer recurrence or survival. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether a major increase in vegetable, fruit, and fiber intake and…

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Increase in cruciferous vegetable intake in women previously treated for breast cancer participating in a dietary intervention trial

Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk mechanistically and in population-based studies, although evidence has been inconsistent. This inconsistency may be related to limitations in quantifying and qualifying cruciferous vegetable exposure using standard instruments for…

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Associations between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between dietary lutein plus zeaxanthin and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Women aged 50 to 79 years in Iowa, Wisconsin, and Oregon with intake of lutein plus zeaxanthin above the 78th (high) and below…

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Interactions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} and diet in etiology of colorectal cancer

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is one of a group of ligand-activated nuclear receptors responsible for regulation of glucose, lipid homeostasis, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The 12 proline-to-alanine (Pro12Ala) substitution polymorphism in PPARgamma produces proteins with lower activity. Variation…

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A randomized trial of the effect of a plant-based dietary pattern on additional breast cancer events and survival: the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study

The Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study is a multisite randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of a high-vegetable, low-fat diet, aimed at markedly raising circulating carotenoid concentrations from food sources, in reducing additional breast cancer events and early…

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