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metGWAS 1.0: An R workflow for network-driven over-representation analysis between independent metabolomic and meta-genome-wide association studies

The method of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and metabolomics combined provide an quantitative approach to pinpoint metabolic pathways and genes linked to specific diseases; however, such analyses require both genomics and metabolomics datasets from the same individuals/samples. In most cases,…

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Low gestational weight gain (+2.0 to 4.9 kg) for singleton-term gestations associated with favorable perinatal outcomes for all prepregnancy obesity classes

Previous studies that evaluated low gestational weight gain or weight loss among prepregnancy obesity classes have not determined the amount of gestational weight gain associated with the lowest risk of adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal morbidity among singleton term births.…

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Early Pregnancy Systolic Blood Pressure Patterns Predict Early- and Later-Onset Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension Among Ostensibly Low-to-Moderate Risk Groups

Background Clinical risk factors, a single blood pressure (BP) measurement, current biomarkers, and biophysical parameters can effectively identify risk of early-onset preeclampsia but have limited ability to predict later-onset preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. Clinical BP patterns hold promise to improve…

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Blood pressure patterns in the first half of pregnancy improve early prediction of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension

Routine blood pressure readings recorded in the first half of pregnancy can be divided into 6 distinct patterns that can effectively stratify patients by their risk of developing preeclampsia and gestational hypertension later in pregnancy.
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Large-scale data harmonization across prospective studies: The Preconception Period Analysis of Risks and Exposures Influencing health and Development (PrePARED) consortium

The PrePARED consortium creates a novel resource for addressing preconception health by merging cohorts. We describe our data harmonization methods and results. Individual-level data from 12 prospective studies were pooled. The crosswalk-cataloging-harmonization procedure was used. The index pregnancy was defined…

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The prospective association of hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovary syndrome with incident gestational diabetes: The coronary artery risk development in young adults women’s study

In this 28-year prospective study of 455 women (mean age: 26 years), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was associated with a 2.6-fold elevated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). However, hyperandrogenism or oligomenorrhea in the absence of PCOS was not associated with GDM.

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Reduced cardiovascular risks in women with endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome carrying a common functional IGF1R variant

Is the increased future cardiovascular risk seen in women with endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) mitigated by functional insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2016347 as previously shown in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy? This cohort…

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Blood pressure patterns in early pregnancy tied to later risk of pregnancy-related hypertension complications

Kaiser Permanente research suggests blood pressure patterns seen during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy may offer critical clues to identify the patients most likely to develop high blood pressure complications later in their pregnancies.
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Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Unique Opportunities for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

This statement summarizes evidence that adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age delivery, placental abruption, and pregnancy loss increase a woman's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and of developing…

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Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum and subsequent risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Danish women: A cohort study

One-fourth of women experience substantially higher weight years after childbirth. We examined weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum according to subsequent maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a cohort study of 47,966 women with…

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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Early and Continued Breastfeeding: Findings from an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

Purpose: To examine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with breastfeeding behaviors. Methods: Women in three Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers were screened for ACEs during standard prenatal care (N = 926). Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression was used…

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A longitudinal study of pre-pregnancy antioxidant levels and subsequent perinatal outcomes in black and white women: The CARDIA Study

Although protective associations between dietary antioxidants and pregnancy outcomes have been reported, randomized controlled trials of supplementation have been almost uniformly negative. A possible explanation is that supplementation during pregnancy may be too late to have a beneficial effect. Therefore,…

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The Preconception Period analysis of Risks and Exposures Influencing health and Development (PrePARED) consortium

Preconception health may have intergenerational influences. We have formed the PrePARED (Preconception Period Analysis of Risks and Exposures influencing health and Development) research consortium to address methodological, conceptual, and generalisability gaps in the literature. The consortium will investigate the effects…

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Association Between Gestational Diabetes and Incident Maternal CKD: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether GDM is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), controlling for prepregnancy risk factors for both conditions. Prospective cohort. Of…

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Hospital Supplementation Differentially Impacts the Association Between Breastfeeding Intention and Duration Among Women With and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus History

Little is known about how in-hospital supplementation with water, infant formula, or sugar water affects the relationship between breastfeeding intentions and duration, and whether this differs by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) history. Our study objectives were to assess the associations…

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The Kaiser Permanente Northern California research program on genes, environment, and health (RPGEH) pregnancy cohort: study design, methodology and baseline characteristics

Exposures during the prenatal period may have lasting effects on maternal and child health outcomes. To better understand the effects of the in utero environment on children's short- and long-term health, large representative pregnancy cohorts with comprehensive information on a…

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The Comparative Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Strategies to Reduce Postpartum Weight Retention in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

To compare the effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies addressing postpartum weight retention for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivered at the health system level: mailed recommendations (usual care) versus usual care plus a Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-derived lifestyle intervention.…

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The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics

Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have…

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Lactation intensity and fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin in postpartum women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: The SWIFT cohort

Lactation may influence future progression to type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, biomarkers associated with progression to glucose intolerance have not been examined in relation to lactation intensity among postpartum women with previous GDM. This study investigates…

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A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) study

Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at high risk of developing diabetes later in life. After a GDM diagnosis, women receive prenatal care to control their blood glucose levels via diet, physical activity and medications. Continuing such lifestyle skills into…

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History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Risk of Atherosclerosis in Mid-life: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether GDM increases risk of early atherosclerosis independent of pre-pregnancy obesity…

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The Role of Lactation in GDM Women

Lactating women exhibit more favorable blood glucose and insulin profiles, as well as increased insulin sensitivity than nonlactating women. Yet, much less is known about whether these favorable effects on metabolic risk factors persist long-term among women with gestational diabetes…

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Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c With Fasting Plasma Glucose and 2-h Postchallenge Glucose for Risk Stratification Among Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

OBJECTIVE: Postpartum testing with a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone is often not performed among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Use of hemoglobin A(1c) (A1C) might increase testing. The association…

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Longitudinal study of prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: The CARDIA study

This study examined prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in subsequent pregnancies. The authors selected 1,164 women without diabetes before pregnancy who delivered 1,809 livebirths between 5 consecutive examinations from 1985 to 2006 in the Coronary Artery…

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Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the association between lactation duration and incidence of the metabolic syndrome among women of reproductive age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1,399 women (39% black, aged 18-30 years) in…

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Alcohol and hypertension: a review

In recent decades alcohol use has joined other correlates of hypertension (HTN), such as obesity and salt intake, as a major research focus about HTN risk factors. In cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies, higher blood pressure (BP) has consistently been…

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A 20-year prospective study of childbearing and incidence of diabetes in young women, controlling for glycemia before conception: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether childbearing increases incidence of type 2 diabetes after accounting for preconception glycemia and gestational glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, biracial cohort was examined up to five times during 1985-2006 in the…

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Do long-term HDL-C declines associated with a first birth vary by apo E phenotype? The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women are differentially affected by exogenous sex hormones depending on their apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotype. Because endogenous sex hormones markedly increase during pregnancy, we examined whether HDL-C declines after…

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Development of overweight associated with childbearing depends on smoking habit: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate whether childbearing leads to development of overweight in women and to evaluate the role of other known risk factors. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A prospective, multicenter observational study, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults…

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The relative importance of gestational gain and maternal characteristics associated with the risk of becoming overweight after pregnancy

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationships between gestational gain, race/ethnicity, reproductive history, age, education and the risk of becoming overweight after pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of adult women from four race/ethnicity groups who had two consecutive births between 1980…

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