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Impact of a scalable training program on the quality of colonoscopy performance and risk of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer

Endoscopist adenoma detection rates (ADRs) vary widely and are associated with patients' risk of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancers (PCCRCs). However, few scalable physician-directed interventions demonstrably both improve ADR and reduce PCCRC risk. Among patients undergoing colonoscopy, we evaluated the influence of…

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Associations of dietary isothiocyanate exposure from cruciferous vegetable consumption with recurrence and progression of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: findings from the Be-Well Study

High recurrence and progression rates are major clinical challenges for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Dietary isothiocyanates (ITCs), phytochemicals primarily from cruciferous vegetables (CV), show strong anticancer activities in preclinical BC models, yet their effect on NMIBC prognosis remains unknown. This…

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The prospective association of hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovary syndrome with incident gestational diabetes: The coronary artery risk development in young adults women’s study

In this 28-year prospective study of 455 women (mean age: 26 years), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was associated with a 2.6-fold elevated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). However, hyperandrogenism or oligomenorrhea in the absence of PCOS was not associated with GDM.

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Associations between antidepressant use patterns during pregnancy and birth outcomes among periconception antidepressant users

Little is known about antidepressant medication use patterns during pregnancy among periconception (before and immediately following conception) users. Additionally, the associations between these patterns and birth outcomes is unclear, after taking into account underlying depression severity. This study describes patterns…

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A prospective study of lifestyle factors and bone health in breast cancer patients who received aromatase inhibitors in an integrated healthcare setting

Fracture and osteoporosis are known side effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for postmenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients. How modifiable lifestyle factors impact fracture risk in these patients is relatively unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study…

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Urinary Phenols in Early to Mid-Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort

Environmental phenols are ubiquitous endocrine disruptors and putatively diabetogenic. However, data during pregnancy are scant. We investigated the prospective associations between pregnancy phenol concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In a nested matched case-control study of 111 individuals with…

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Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with never-smoking status in patients with lung cancer: findings from a large integrated health system

Evidence is limited characterizing sociodemographically diverse patient populations with lung cancer in relation to smoking status. In a cross-sectional analysis of adults diagnosed with lung cancer at ages ≥30 years from 2007-2018 within an integrated healthcare system, overall and sex-specific…

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Reach, acceptability, and perceived success of a telehealth diabetes prevention program among racially and ethnically diverse patients with gestational diabetes: the GEM cluster-randomized trial

Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and from racial/ethnic minority groups face disproportionate risk for type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle interventions, if accessible and acceptable to diverse patients, could advance diabetes prevention and mitigate racial/ethnic disparities. Here we describe overall and race/ethnicity-specific…

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A Web-Based mHealth Intervention With Telephone Support to Increase Physical Activity Among Pregnant Patients With Overweight or Obesity: Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

Pregnant patients with overweight or obesity are at high risk for perinatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) further exacerbates this risk. Mobile health (mHealth) lifestyle interventions that leverage technology to facilitate self-monitoring and provide just-in-time feedback may motivate behavior…

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Risk of severe clinical outcomes among persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection with differing levels of vaccination during widespread Omicron (B.1.1.529) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variant circulation in Northern California: A retrospective cohort study

The incidence of and risk factors for severe clinical outcomes with the Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant have not been well-defined. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess risks of severe clinical outcomes within 21 days after SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in…

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Uptake of guideline-recommended postpartum diabetes screening among diverse women with gestational diabetes: associations with patient factors in an integrated health system in USA

Clinical guidelines urge timely postpartum screening for diabetes among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), yet patient factors associated with screening uptake remain unclear. We aimed to identify patient factors associated with completed postpartum diabetes screening (2-hour oral glucose tolerance…

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Rates of cardiovascular events among patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in an integrated health care system: A retrospective cohort study

Patients with versus without atopic dermatitis may have a greater risk of cardiovascular events, and the risk increases with severity of atopic dermatitis. The incidence of cardiovascular events in the population of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis is largely unknown.…

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Parent-focused prevention of adolescent health risk behavior: Study protocol for a multisite cluster-randomized trial implemented in pediatric primary care

Evidence-based parenting interventions play a crucial role in the sustained reduction of adolescent behavioral health concerns. Guiding Good Choices (GGC) is a 5-session universal anticipatory guidance curriculum for parents of early adolescents that has been shown to reduce substance use,…

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Lifestyle-related education and counseling resource utilization and cardiovascular biomarkers in midlife women with low physical activity

Health plan-based resources are promising avenues for decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined associations of lifestyle-related resource utilization within a healthcare delivery system and cardiovascular biomarkers among midlife women with low physical activity. Midlife women (45-55 years old) with

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Mediating Effects of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors on the Association Between Maternal Race-Ethnicity and Cesarean Delivery Among Low-Risk Women

Background: While racial-ethnic disparities in cesarean delivery rates among nulliparous women delivering a term singleton in the vertex position (NTSV) exist, it remains unclear the extent to which potentially modifiable maternal cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, maternal hyperglycemia and hypertensive disorders)…

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mHealth Mindfulness Intervention for Women with Moderate-to-Moderately-Severe Antenatal Depressive Symptoms: a Pilot Study Within an Integrated Health Care System

Traditional mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to reduce depression symptoms in pregnant women, although in-person classes may pose significant accessibility barriers, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mobile technology offers greater convenience, but little is known regarding the efficacy of self-paced,…

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Recruitment strategies and design considerations in a trial of resistance training to prevent dose-limiting toxicities in colon cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

Low muscle is associated with an increased risk of chemotherapy-related dose limiting toxicities (DLT) in cancer patients. Resistance training (RT) improves muscle mass; however, the effects of RT on preventing DLTs and dose reductions in colon cancer patients has not…

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History of Early Childhood Infections and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Children in a U.S. Integrated Health Care System

Surrogate measures of infectious exposures have been consistently associated with lower childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. However, recent reports have suggested that physician-diagnosed early-life infections increase ALL risk, thereby raising the possibility that stronger responses to infections might promote…

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Pilot pragmatic randomized trial of mHealth mindfulness-based intervention for advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers

Assess the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomized trial (RCT) comparing technology-delivered mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) programs against a waitlist control arm targeting advanced cancer patients and their informal caregivers. Two-arm cluster RCT within Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We recruited…

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A telehealth lifestyle intervention to reduce excess gestational weight gain in pregnant women with overweight or obesity (GLOW): a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial

Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) among women with overweight or obesity synergistically increases their already elevated risk of having gestational diabetes, a caesarean delivery, a large for gestational age infant, and post-partum weight retention, and increases their child's risk of…

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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery to Change Process Measures and Reduce Opioid Use After Cesarean Delivery: A Quality Improvement Initiative

To evaluate implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program for patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery by comparing opioid exposure, multimodal analgesia use, and other process and outcome measures before and after implementation. An ERAS program was implemented among…

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Telomere length and socioeconomic status at neighborhood and individual levels among 80,000 adults in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort

Telomere length (TL) may serve as a biologic marker of aging. We examined neighborhood and individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to TL. The study included 84,996 non-Hispanic white subjects from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging…

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Gestational weight gain and optimal wellness (GLOW): rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention among pregnant women with overweight or obesity

Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is common among women with overweight or obesity, increasing their risks for pregnancy complications, delivering a large infant, and postpartum weight retention. To date, only intensive interventions have had success and few interventions have been…

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Study of Longevity in Diabetes (SOLID)

Type 1 diabetes is a complicated disease requiring constant adherence to glycemic targets and meticulous attention and vigilance of blood sugar. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are living longer than ever before, yet very little is known about how this…

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Life After 90

Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias affect 15 percent of those aged 65 and older, by age 90 and older this number increases to a startling 40 to 50 percent. The oldest-old, people aged 90 and older, are the fastest growing…

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of mHealth Mindfulness Intervention for Cancer Patients and Informal Cancer Caregivers: A Feasibility Study Within an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

To assess feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a mobile/online-based (mHealth) mindfulness intervention for cancer patients and their caregivers to reduce distress and improve quality of life (QoL). Two-arm randomized controlled trial within Kaiser Permanente Northern California targeting cancer patients who…

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Examining the role of access to care: Racial/ethnic differences in receipt of resection for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer among integrated system members and non-members

To examine the role of uniform access to care in reducing racial/ethnic disparities in receipt of resection for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by comparing integrated health system member patients to demographically similar non-member patients. Using data from…

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Effects of Organized Colorectal Cancer Screening on Cancer Incidence and Mortality in a Large, Community-based Population

Little information is available on the effectiveness of organized colorectal cancer (CRC) screening on screening uptake, incidence, and mortality in community-based populations. We contrasted screening rates, age-adjusted annual CRC incidence, and incidence-based mortality rates before (baseline year 2000) and after…

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Association of raltegravir use with long-term health outcomes in HIV-infected patients: an observational post-licensure safety study in a large integrated healthcare system

Raltegravir became the first integrase inhibitor to gain FDA approval; but with limited evidence documenting long-term risks in real world care, especially for major health outcomes of interest. Assess raltegravir safety in clinical practice within an integrated health system. We…

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Risk of diabetes complications among those with diabetes receiving androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), used increasingly in the treatment of localized prostate cancer, is associated with substantial long-term adverse consequences, including incident diabetes. While previous studies have suggested that ADT negatively influences glycemic control in existing diabetes, its association with…

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A Tailored Letter Based on Electronic Health Record Data Improves Gestational Weight Gain Among Women With Gestational Diabetes: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Evaluate whether a tailored letter improved gestational weight gain (GWG) and whether GWG mediated a multicomponent intervention's effect on postpartum weight retention among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster-randomized controlled trial of 44 medical facilities (n = 2,014…

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Associations Between Maternal Obesity and Pregnancy Hyperglycemia and Timing of Pubertal Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Population-Based Study

Early puberty is associated with adverse health outcomes. We investigated whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity is associated with daughters' pubertal timing using 15,267 racially/ethnically diverse Kaiser Permanente Northern California members aged 6-11 years with pediatrician-assessed Tanner staging (2003-2017).…

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MultIethNic Study of BrEast ARterial Calcium Gradation and CardioVAscular Disease: cohort recruitment and baseline characteristics

MultIethNic Study of BrEast ARterial Calcium Gradation and CardioVAscular Disease (MINERVA) was designed to answer the question of whether a novel continuous breast arterial calcification (BAC) mass score improves cardiovascular risk stratification among asymptomatic postmenopausal women. This article describes recruitment…

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A Biopsy-based 17-gene Genomic Prostate Score as a Predictor of Metastases and Prostate Cancer Death in Surgically Treated Men with Clinically Localized Disease

A 17-gene biopsy-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, which provides a Genomic Prostate Score (GPS-scale 0-100), has been validated as an independent predictor of adverse pathology and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with low- and intermediate-risk…

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25-Year Physical Activity Trajectories and Development of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease as Measured by Coronary Artery Calcium: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

To evaluate 25-year physical activity (PA) trajectories from young to middle age and assess associations with the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study includes 3175 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who…

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The Comparative Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Strategies to Reduce Postpartum Weight Retention in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

To compare the effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies addressing postpartum weight retention for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivered at the health system level: mailed recommendations (usual care) versus usual care plus a Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-derived lifestyle intervention.…

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Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality…

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Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

The Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH) Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort includes DNA specimens extracted from saliva samples of 110,266 individuals. Because of its relationship to aging, telomere length measurement…

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Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

The Kaiser Permanente (KP) Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH), in collaboration with the University of California-San Francisco, undertook genome-wide genotyping of >100,000 subjects that constitute the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort. The…

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Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Associated With a Restless Legs Syndrome Diagnosis in a Retrospective Cohort Study from Kaiser Permanente Northern California

Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) comorbidity or risk factors. We evaluated whether primary or secondary RLS was associated with an increased risk of incident cardiovascular…

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The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics

Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have…

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Distant Invasive Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive T1a and T1b Node-Negative Localized Breast Cancer Diagnosed From 2000 to 2006: A Cohort From an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

To determine the invasive recurrence (IR) risk among patients with small, node-negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive breast cancer. Among 16,975 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2006, in…

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Lactation intensity and fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin in postpartum women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: The SWIFT cohort

Lactation may influence future progression to type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, biomarkers associated with progression to glucose intolerance have not been examined in relation to lactation intensity among postpartum women with previous GDM. This study investigates…

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A pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial of diabetes prevention strategies for women with gestational diabetes: design and rationale of the Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) study

Women with gestational diabetes (GDM) are at high risk of developing diabetes later in life. After a GDM diagnosis, women receive prenatal care to control their blood glucose levels via diet, physical activity and medications. Continuing such lifestyle skills into…

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History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Risk of Atherosclerosis in Mid-life: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether GDM increases risk of early atherosclerosis independent of pre-pregnancy obesity…

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Low Prepregnancy Adiponectin Concentrations Are Associated With a Marked Increase in Risk for Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

To examine whether circulating total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations, measured before pregnancy, are associated with subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This was a nested case-control study among women who participated in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California…

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Impact of Endoscopic Surveillance on Mortality from Barrett’s Esophagus-Associated Esophageal Adenocarcinomas

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although patients with Barrett's esophagus commonly undergo endoscopic surveillance, its effectiveness in reducing mortality from esophageal/gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinomas has not been evaluated rigorously. METHODS: We performed a case-control study in a community-based setting. Among 8272 members with…

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Variation of Adenoma Prevalence by Age, Sex, Race, and Colon Location in a Large Population: Implications for Screening and Quality Programs

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Reliable community-based colorectal adenoma prevalence estimates are needed to inform colonoscopy quality standards and to estimate patient colorectal cancer risks; however, minimal data exist from populations with large numbers of diverse patients and examiners. METHODS: We evaluated…

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Recent combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and the risk of thromboembolism and other cardiovascular events in new users

BACKGROUND: Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) place women at increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) and arterial thrombotic events (ATEs), including acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. There is concern that three recent CHC preparations [drospirenone-containing pills (DRSPs), the norelgestromin-containing…

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A practical molecular assay to predict survival in resected non-squamous, non-small-cell lung cancer: development and international validation studies

BACKGROUND: The frequent recurrence of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is generally attributable to metastatic disease undetected at complete resection. Management of such patients depends on prognostic staging to identify the individuals most likely to have occult disease. We aimed…

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Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm

Four custom Axiom genotyping arrays were designed for a genome-wide association (GWA) study of 100,000 participants from the Kaiser Permanente Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health. The array optimized for individuals of European race/ethnicity was previously described. Here we…

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A pregnancy and postpartum lifestyle intervention in women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduces diabetes risk factors: a feasibility randomized control trial

OBJECTIVE: To pilot, among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the feasibility of a prenatal/postpartum intervention to modify diet and physical activity similar to the Diabetes Prevention Program. The intervention was delivered by telephone, and support for breastfeeding was addressed.…

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Excess mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with substance use dependence or abuse receiving care in a fully integrated medical care program

BACKGROUND: We examined the association between substance use (SU) disorder and mortality among HIV-infected patients in a large, private medical care program. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort design, HIV-infected patients (>/=14 years old) from a large health plan (Northern California)…

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Circulating angiopoietins-1 and -2, angiopoietin receptor Tie-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A as biomarkers of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective nested case-control study

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is up-regulated in myocardial ischemia. However, limited data exist assessing the value of circulating angiogenic biomarkers in predicting future incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to examine the association between circulating levels of markers of…

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Longitudinal study of prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: The CARDIA study

This study examined prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in subsequent pregnancies. The authors selected 1,164 women without diabetes before pregnancy who delivered 1,809 livebirths between 5 consecutive examinations from 1985 to 2006 in the Coronary Artery…

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Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment in a case-control study: comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed by central laboratories

PURPOSE: The optimal method to assess human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status remains highly controversial. Before reporting patient HER2 results, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines mandate that laboratories demonstrate >/= 95% concordance…

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Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the association between lactation duration and incidence of the metabolic syndrome among women of reproductive age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1,399 women (39% black, aged 18-30 years) in…

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Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men’s Health Study

BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among…

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Syphilis epidemiology and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients in Kaiser Permanente Northern California

BACKGROUND: Syphilis rates are rising in California, but the impact of HIV infection on syphilis infection remains uncertain. We describe differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients diagnosed with syphilis within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. METHODS: We performed retrospective analyses of…

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Race, ethnicity, sex and temporal differences in Barrett’s oesophagus diagnosis: a large community-based study, 1994-2006

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the demographics and incidence of Barrett's oesophagus diagnosis using community-based data. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Kaiser Permanente, Northern California healthcare membership, 1994-2006. PATIENTS: Members with an electronic diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence and prevalence…

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Post-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer recurrence in a prospective cohort study of early stage breast cancer survivors

PURPOSE: We examined the association between post-diagnosis statin use (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] inhibitors) and risk of breast cancer recurrence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 1945 early stage breast cancer survivors participating in the Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study.…

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Effects of depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and on clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients

OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of depression on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence and clinical measures and investigate if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) improve these measures. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: In 2 large health maintenance organizations, we…

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Development of Alive! (A Lifestyle Intervention Via Email), and its effect on health-related quality of life, presenteeism, and other behavioral outcomes: randomized controlled trial

BACKGROUND: Cost-effective interventions to improve diet and physical activity are a public health priority. Alive! is an email-based intervention to increase physical activity, reduce saturated and trans fats and added sugars, and increase fruit and vegetable consumption. It was shown…

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A 20-year prospective study of childbearing and incidence of diabetes in young women, controlling for glycemia before conception: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether childbearing increases incidence of type 2 diabetes after accounting for preconception glycemia and gestational glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, biracial cohort was examined up to five times during 1985-2006 in the…

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Pregnancy plasma glucose levels exceeding the American Diabetes Association thresholds, but below the National Diabetes Data Group thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus, are related to the risk of neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a risk factor for perinatal complications. In several countries, the criteria for the diagnosis of GDM have been in flux, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) thresholds recommended in 2000 being lower than those of…

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Surgical outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy

HYPOTHESIS: Matched patients who test positive or negative for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are undergoing comparable operations have similar complication rates and outcomes. DESIGN: A retrospective study of surgical outcomes in HIV-infected and matched HIV-noninfected patients. Baseline information including…

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Do long-term HDL-C declines associated with a first birth vary by apo E phenotype? The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

BACKGROUND: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women are differentially affected by exogenous sex hormones depending on their apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotype. Because endogenous sex hormones markedly increase during pregnancy, we examined whether HDL-C declines after…

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COPD and incident cardiovascular disease hospitalizations and mortality: Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between diagnosed and treated COPD and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) hospitalization and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective matched cohort study. SETTING: Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (KPNC), a comprehensive prepaid integrated health-care…

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Development of overweight associated with childbearing depends on smoking habit: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate whether childbearing leads to development of overweight in women and to evaluate the role of other known risk factors. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A prospective, multicenter observational study, the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults…

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Physical activity and changes in weight and waist circumference in midlife women: findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

Controversy exists regarding the extent to which age, menopausal status, and/or lifestyle behaviors account for the increased weight, fat mass, and central adiposity experienced by midlife women. To address this question, the authors longitudinally examined the relations of aging, menopausal…

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