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Genome-wide association analyses of physical activity and sedentary behavior provide insights into underlying mechanisms and roles in disease prevention

Although physical activity and sedentary behavior are moderately heritable, little is known about the mechanisms that influence these traits. Combining data for up to 703,901 individuals from 51 studies in a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies yields 99 loci…

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Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity from young adulthood to middle age and metabolic disease: a 30-year population-based cohort study

To determine the association between moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories (course over age and time) through the adult life course and onset of metabolic disease (diabetes and dyslipidaemia). We analysed prospective community-based cohort data of 5115 participants in the…

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Establishing a National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System in the United States Using Electronic Health Record Data: Key Strengths and Limitations

Cardiovascular disease surveillance involves quantifying the evolving population-level burden of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors as a data-driven initial step followed by the implementation of interventional strategies designed to alleviate this burden in the target population. Despite widespread acknowledgement of…

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Joint associations between neighborhood walkability, greenness, and particulate air pollution on cardiovascular mortality among adults with a history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction

Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Neighborhood walkability and greenness may also be associated with CVD, but there is limited evidence on their joint or interacting effects with PM2.5. Cox proportional hazard models…

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Blood Pressure and Later-Life Cognition in Hispanic and White Adults (BP-COG): A Pooled Cohort Analysis of ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, FOS, MESA, and NOMAS

Ethnic differences in cognitive decline have been reported. Whether they can be explained by differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) is uncertain. Determine whether cumulative mean SBP levels explain differences in cognitive decline between Hispanic and White individuals. Pooled cohort…

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Young Adult and Midlife Transitions in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Heart Failure Risk and Progression: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

This CARDIA ancillary study will examine the longitudinal relations of 35-year changes in reported physical activity from young adulthood to late midlife with indicators of subclinical heart failure collected at late midlife, and evaluate interaction in these relations by race,…

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Cardiovascular risk and functional burden at midlife: Prospective associations of isotemporal reallocations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in the CARDIA study

Cardiovascular risk and functional burden, or the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors coupled with functional decline, may be an important risk state analogy to multimorbidity. We investigated prospective associations of sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate…

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer-derived physical activity and stationary behavior with self-reported mental and physical health during midlife

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is associated with favorable self-rated mental and physical health. Conversely, poor self-rated health in these domains could precede unfavorable shifts in activity. We evaluated bidirectional associations of accelerometer-estimated time spent in stationary behavior (SB), light…

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with knee pain, stiffness, and physical function: The CARDIA study

The objective was to examine bidirectional associations of accelerometer estimated sedentary time and physical activity with reported knee symptoms. Participants were 2,034 adults (mean age 45.3 ± 3.6 years, 58.7% female) from CARDIA. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regression and linear mixed regression…

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Cumulative Marijuana Use and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Long-term cardiovascular health effects of marijuana are understudied. Future cardiovascular disease is often indicated by subclinical atherosclerosis for which carotid intima-media thickness is an established parameter. Using the data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a…

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Longitudinal Associations of Fitness and Obesity in Young Adulthood With Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in Middle Age: The CARDIA Study

Background Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity are risk factors for heart failure but their associations with right ventricular (RV) systolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) are not well understood. Methods and Results Participants in the CARDIA (Coronary…

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Association between marijuana use and electrocardiographic abnormalities by middle age The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

To evaluate the prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in marijuana users as an indirect measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Longitudinal and cross-sectional secondary data analysis from the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Four communities in…

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Longitudinal Associations of Midlife Accelerometer Determined Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity With Cognitive Function: The CARDIA Study

Background To determine if accelerometer measured sedentary behavior (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in midlife is prospectively associated with cognitive function. Methods and Results Participants were 1970 adults enrolled in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk…

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Pre-Statistical Considerations for Harmonization of Cognitive Instruments: Harmonization of ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, FHS, MESA, and NOMAS

Meta-analyses of individuals' cognitive data are increasing to investigate the biomedical, lifestyle, and sociocultural factors that influence cognitive decline and dementia risk. Pre-statistical harmonization of cognitive instruments is a critical methodological step for accurate cognitive data harmonization, yet specific approaches…

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Association of Racial Residential Segregation Throughout Young Adulthood and Cognitive Performance in Middle-aged Participants in the CARDIA Study

Neighborhood-level residential segregation is implicated as a determinant for poor health outcomes in black individuals, but it is unclear whether this association extends to cognitive aging, especially in midlife. To examine the association between cumulative exposure to residential segregation during…

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Recommendations for Cardiovascular Health and Disease Surveillance for 2030 and Beyond: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association

The release of the American Heart Association's 2030 Impact Goal and associated metrics for success underscores the importance of cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease surveillance systems for the acquisition of information sufficient to support implementation and evaluation. The aim of…

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Perceived and objective characteristics of the neighborhood environment are associated with accelerometer-measured sedentary time and physical activity, the CARDIA Study

We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighborhood environment characteristics with accelerometer-measured sedentary time (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Participants were 2120 men and women in the year 20 (2005-2006) and year 30 CARDIA…

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Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of 387,272 individuals identifies new loci associated with serum lipids

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up…

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Associations of Accelerometer-Measured Sedentary Time and Physical Activity With Prospectively Assessed Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: The CARDIA Study

Background Isotemporal substitution examines the effect on health outcomes of replacing sedentary time with light-intensity physical activity or moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity; however, existing studies are limited by cross-sectional study designs. Methods and Results Participants were 1922 adults from the…

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Fasting Glucose Variability in Young Adulthood and Cognitive Function in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

To determine whether intraindividual variability in fasting glucose (FG) below the threshold of diabetes is associated with cognitive function in middle adulthood beyond increasing FG. We studied 3,307 CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development Study in Young Adults) participants (age range…

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Exome Chip Analysis Identifies Low-Frequency and Rare Variants in MRPL38 for White Matter Hyperintensities on Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Background and Purpose- White matter hyperintensities (WMH) on brain magnetic resonance imaging are typical signs of cerebral small vessel disease and may indicate various preclinical, age-related neurological disorders, such as stroke. Though WMH are highly heritable, known common variants explain…

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Occupational cognitive complexity in earlier adulthood is associated with brain structure and cognitive health in midlife: The CARDIA study

In line with cognitive reserve theory, higher occupational cognitive complexity is associated with reduced cognitive decline in older adulthood. How and when occupational cognitive complexity first exerts protective effects during the life span remains unclear. We investigated associations between occupational…

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Cumulative blood pressure from early adulthood to middle age is associated with left atrial remodelling and subclinical dysfunction assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography: a prospective post hoc analysis from the coronary artery risk development in young adults study

To evaluate the association of cumulative blood pressure (BP) from young adulthood to middle age with left atrial (LA) structure/function as assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) in a large longitudinal bi-racial population study. We conducted a prospective post hoc analysis…

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High-resolution mapping of traffic related air pollution with Google street view cars and incidence of cardiovascular events within neighborhoods in Oakland, CA

Some studies have linked long-term exposure to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) with adverse cardiovascular health outcomes; however, previous studies have not linked highly variable concentrations of TRAP measured at street-level within neighborhoods to cardiovascular health outcomes. Long-term pollutant concentrations…

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Novel genetic associations for blood pressure identified via gene-alcohol interaction in up to 570K individuals across multiple ancestries

Heavy alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for hypertension; the mechanism by which alcohol consumption impact blood pressure (BP) regulation remains unknown. We hypothesized that a genome-wide association study accounting for gene-alcohol consumption interaction for BP might identify additional…

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White matter microstructure, white matter lesions, and hypertension: An examination of early surrogate markers of vascular-related brain change in midlife

We examined imaging surrogates of white matter microstructural abnormalities which may precede white matter lesions (WML) and represent a relevant marker of cerebrovascular injury in adults in midlife. In 698 community-dwelling adults (mean age 50 years ±3.5 SD) from the Coronary…

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25-Year Physical Activity Trajectories and Development of Subclinical Coronary Artery Disease as Measured by Coronary Artery Calcium: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

To evaluate 25-year physical activity (PA) trajectories from young to middle age and assess associations with the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study includes 3175 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who…

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Intake of niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 through young adulthood and cognitive function in midlife: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

Background: Epidemiologic evidence regarding niacin, folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 intake in relation to cognitive function is limited, especially in midlife.Objective: We hypothesize that higher intake of these B vitamins in young adulthood is associated with better cognition later…

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Reference Ranges and Regional Patterns of Left Ventricular Strain and Strain Rate Using Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in a Healthy Middle-Aged Black and White Population: The CARDIA Study

Strain and strain rate are sensitive markers of left ventricular (LV) myocardial function. The aim of this study was to assess reference ranges and regional patterns of LV strain and strain rate using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a large population…

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Association of Changes in Neighborhood-Level Racial Residential Segregation With Changes in Blood Pressure Among Black Adults: The CARDIA Study

Despite cross-sectional evidence linking racial residential segregation to hypertension prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks, it remains unclear how changes in exposure to neighborhood segregation may be associated with changes in blood pressure. To examine the association of changes in neighborhood-level racial…

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Racial Differences in Associations of Blood Pressure Components in Young Adulthood With Incident Cardiovascular Disease by Middle Age: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Data are sparse regarding which blood pressure (BP) components in young adulthood optimally determine cardiovascular disease (CVD) by middle age. To assess which BP components best determine incident CVD events in young adults and determine whether these associations vary by…

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CARDIA Brain MRI Microbiome Study

Despite growing evidence that gut microbiota may play an important role in phenotypes related to cardiovascular (CVD) risk, there remains a lack of data from large-scale, population-based cohorts, and particularly, among racial minorities at high CVD risk, such as African-Americans.…

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Characteristics associated with self-rated health in the CARDIA study: Contextualising health determinants by income group

An understanding of factors influencing health in socioeconomic groups is required to reduce health inequalities. This study investigated combinations of health determinants associated with self-rated health (SRH), and their relative importance, in income-based groups. Cross-sectional data from year 15 (2000 - 2001)…

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Relation of longitudinal changes in body mass index with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores in middle-aged black and white adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

We assessed whether longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) are positively associated with changes in 10-year American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk scores in middle-aged blacks compared to whites. Data were from 1691 participants…

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Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults and Cognition in Midlife: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

The classic view of blood pressure (BP) reactivity to psychological stress in relation to cardiovascular risks assumes that excess reactivity is worse and lower reactivity is better. Evidence addressing how stress-induced BP reactivity in young adults is associated with midlife…

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Bariatric surgery results: reporting clinical characteristics and adverse outcomes from an integrated healthcare delivery system

Limited data have been reported on bariatric surgery within a large, high-volume regional multicenter integrated healthcare delivery system. Review clinical characteristics and short- and intermediate-term outcomes and adverse events from a bariatric surgery program within an integrated healthcare delivery system.…

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Quality Control and Reproducibility in M-Mode, Two-Dimensional, and Speckle Tracking Echocardiography Acquisition and Analysis: The CARDIA Study, Year 25 Examination Experience

Few large studies describe quality control procedures and reproducibility findings in cardiovascular ultrasound, particularly in novel techniques such as speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). We evaluate the echocardiography assessment performance in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study…

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Intima-Media Thickness and Cognitive Function in Stroke-Free Middle-Aged Adults: Findings From the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

The relationship between carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and cognitive function in midlife remains relatively unexplored. We examined the association between IMT and cognitive function in a middle-aged epidemiological cohort of 2618 stroke-free participants. At the year 20 visit (our…

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Left atrial dimension and traditional cardiovascular risk factors predict 20-year clinical cardiovascular events in young healthy adults: the CARDIA study

We investigated whether the addition of left atrial (LA) size determined by echocardiography improves cardiovascular risk prediction in young adults over and above the clinically established Framingham 10-year global CV risk score (FRS). We included white and black CARDIA participants…

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History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Risk of Atherosclerosis in Mid-life: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether GDM increases risk of early atherosclerosis independent of pre-pregnancy obesity…

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A cross sectional association between bone mineral density and parathyroid hormone and other biomarkers in community-dwelling young adults: the CARDIA Study

Most association studies of bone-related biomarkers (BBMs) with bone mineral density (BMD) have been conducted in postmenopausal women. We tested whether the following BBMs were cross-sectionally associated with BMD among young adults: serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), PTH,…

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Geographic variation in cardiovascular procedure use among Medicare fee-for-service vs Medicare Advantage beneficiaries

IMPORTANCE: Little is known about how different financial incentives between Medicare Advantage and Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) reimbursement structures influence use of cardiovascular procedures. OBJECTIVE: To compare regional cardiovascular procedure rates between Medicare Advantage and Medicare FFS beneficiaries. DESIGN, SETTING, AND…

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Association of Electrocardiographically Determined Left Ventricular Mass With Incident Diabetes, 1985-1986 to 2010-2011: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

OBJECTIVE: Electrocardiographic indices reflecting left ventricular hypertrophy are associated with incident diabetes in clinical populations at risk for coronary heart disease. We tested whether electrocardiographically determined left ventricular mass was positively associated with incident diabetes in a population sample. RESEARCH…

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Recent combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) and the risk of thromboembolism and other cardiovascular events in new users

BACKGROUND: Combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) place women at increased risk of venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) and arterial thrombotic events (ATEs), including acute myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. There is concern that three recent CHC preparations [drospirenone-containing pills (DRSPs), the norelgestromin-containing…

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Fat mass modifies the association of fat-free mass with symptom-limited treadmill duration in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

BACKGROUND: The assessment of fat mass and fat-free mass in relation to the symptom-limited maximal exercise duration (Max(dur)) of a treadmill test allows for insight into the association of body composition with treadmill performance potential. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the complex…

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SNP-by-fitness and SNP-by-BMI interactions from seven candidate genes and incident hypertension after 20 years of follow-up: the CARDIA Fitness Study

The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from seven candidate genes, including genotype-by-baseline fitness and genotype-by-baseline body mass index (BMI) interactions, with incident hypertension over 20 years was investigated in 2663 participants (1301 blacks, 1362 whites) of the Coronary Artery…

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Association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms from 17 candidate genes with baseline symptom-limited exercise test duration and decrease in duration over 20 years: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) fitness study

BACKGROUND: It is not known whether the genes involved with endurance performance during young adulthood are also involved with changes in performance. We examined the associations of gene variants with symptom-limited exercise test duration at baseline and decrease in duration…

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Longitudinal study of prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: The CARDIA study

This study examined prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in subsequent pregnancies. The authors selected 1,164 women without diabetes before pregnancy who delivered 1,809 livebirths between 5 consecutive examinations from 1985 to 2006 in the Coronary Artery…

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Prospective association of serum androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin with subclinical cardiovascular disease in young adult women: the ‘Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults’ women’s study

CONTEXT: The role of endogenous androgens and SHBG in the development of cardiovascular disease in young adult women is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the prospective association of serum androgens and SHBG with subclinical coronary and carotid disease…

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Prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in a middle-aged, biracial population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

BACKGROUND: Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code and Novacode criteria. Among…

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Nonoptimal lipids commonly present in young adults and coronary calcium later in life: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia causes coronary heart disease in middle-aged and elderly adults, but the consequences of lipid exposure during young adulthood are unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether nonoptimal lipid levels during young adulthood cause atherosclerotic changes that persist into middle age.…

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Joint associations of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the development of incident hypertension: coronary artery risk development in young adults

Fitness and physical activity are each inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We tested whether fitness and physical activity were independently associated with the 20-year incidence of hypertension in 4618 men and women. Hypertension was determined in participants who…

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Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the association between lactation duration and incidence of the metabolic syndrome among women of reproductive age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1,399 women (39% black, aged 18-30 years) in…

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Reduced expression of integrin alphavbeta8 is associated with brain arteriovenous malformation pathogenesis

Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs) are a rare but potentially devastating hemorrhagic disease. Transforming growth factor-beta signaling is required for proper vessel development, and defective transforming growth factor-beta superfamily signaling has been implicated in BAVM pathogenesis. We hypothesized that expression of…

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Segment-specific associations of carotid intima-media thickness with cardiovascular risk factors: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We propose to study possible differences in the associations between risk factors for cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measurements made at 3 different levels of the carotid bifurcation. METHODS: We conducted…

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Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. However, it is controversial whether HIV infection contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis independent of traditional CVD risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of HIV-infected participants and controls…

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Prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adults with low short-term but high lifetime estimated risk for cardiovascular disease: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study and multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that individuals with low 10-year but high lifetime cardiovascular disease risk would have a greater burden of subclinical atherosclerosis than those with low 10-year but low lifetime risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 2988 individuals < or…

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Common variants in interleukin-1-Beta gene are associated with intracranial hemorrhage and susceptibility to brain arteriovenous malformation

BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms in the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta gene have been associated with systemic atherogenesis, thrombosis and rupture. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1beta and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in the…

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A 20-year prospective study of childbearing and incidence of diabetes in young women, controlling for glycemia before conception: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether childbearing increases incidence of type 2 diabetes after accounting for preconception glycemia and gestational glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, biracial cohort was examined up to five times during 1985-2006 in the…

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Microalbuminuria in HIV infection

OBJECTIVE: Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The objective of the study was to evaluate if HIV infection was an independent risk factor for microalbuminuria. DESIGN: Cross sectional. METHODS: The relationship between HIV infection and…

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Incidence and antecedents of nonmedical prescription opioid use in four US communities. The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) prospective cohort study

BACKGROUND: Nonmedical use of prescription opioids has emerged as a major public health problem during the last decade, but direct measures of incidence and predisposing factors are lacking. METHODS: We prospectively measured incidence and antecedents of nonmedical prescription opioid use…

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Menthol cigarettes, smoking cessation, atherosclerosis, and pulmonary function: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

BACKGROUND: African American smokers are more likely to experience tobacco-related morbidity and mortality than European American smokers, and higher rates of menthol cigarette smoking may contribute to these disparities. METHODS: We prospectively measured cumulative exposure to menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes…

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