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TRANSFORM-VAX: Improving Adult Immunization Rates for Covid-19, Influenza, and Routine Adult Vaccination through Partnerships with Medical Subspecialty Societies

This is a collaborative, quality improvement initiative supported by the Centers for Disease Control in partnership with multiple medical specialty societies including the American College of cardiology to evaluate implementation science strategies to improve vaccination for influenza and pneumococcal pneumonia…

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Covert Cerebrovascular Disease Detected by Artificial Intelligence (C2D2AI): A Platform for Pragmatic Evidence Generation for Stroke and Dementia Prevention

Silent cerebrovascular disease (SCD), including silent brain infarction (SBI) and white matter disease, is commonly found incidentally on neuroimaging scans obtained in routine clinical care. In prior studies, imaging findings of SCD are strong, independent risk factors for future stroke…

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Nationwide Utilization of Danish Government Electronic Letter System for Increasing InFLUenza Vaccine Uptake (NUDGE-FLU): Study Protocol for a Nationwide Randomized Implementation Trial

Annual influenza vaccination is widely recommended in older adults and other high-risk groups including patients with cardiovascular disease. The real-world effectiveness of influenza vaccination is limited by suboptimal uptake and effective strategies for increasing vaccination rates are therefore needed. The…

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The Effect of Electronic Nudges on Influenza Vaccination Rate in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: a Prespecified Analysis of the NUDGE-FLU Trial

Influenza vaccines have been demonstrated to effectively reduce the incidence of influenza infection and potentially associated risks of cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite strong guideline and public health endorsements, global influenza vaccination rates in patients with…

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Multi-Marker Risk Assessment in Patients Hospitalized with COVID-19: Results from the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry

The pathobiology of inflammation, thrombosis, and myocardial injury associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may be assessed by circulating biomarkers. However, their relative prognostic importance has been incompletely described. We analyzed data from patients hospitalized with COVID-19…

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Electronic nudges to increase influenza vaccination uptake in Denmark: a nationwide, pragmatic, registry-based, randomised implementation trial

Influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal despite effectiveness in preventing influenza infection and related complications. We investigated whether behavioural nudges, delivered via a governmental electronic letter system, would increase influenza vaccination uptake among older adults in Denmark. We did a nationwide,…

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Improving Care by Defining the Role of ElectroNic HealTh Record-Based Alerts In a Fully Integrated Health Care Delivery SYstem for Worsening Heart Failure (IDENTIFY-WHF)

IDENTIFY-WHF is a prospective, virtual, parallel-group, randomized, quality improvement intervention of EHR-based alerts for worsening heart failure (WHF) to improve the adoption of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) within an integrated and learning health care delivery system. Approximately 1,000 participants will…

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TRANSFORM3: Evaluation of Implementation Strategies of Teaching, Technology, and Teams to Optimize Medical Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease (“T3”)

This initiative evaluates strategies (including technology-based decision support, referral to a virtual guideline-directed medical therapy team, and general educational tools/resources for clinicians and patients) to improve use of guideline-directed therapeutics known to lower cardiovascular events among patients with heart failure,…

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Practice Patterns and Outcomes Associated With Anticoagulation Use Following Sepsis Hospitalizations With New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation

Practice patterns and outcomes associated with the use of oral anticoagulation for arterial thromboembolism prevention following a hospitalization with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) during sepsis are unclear. Retrospective, observational cohort study of patients ≥40 years of age discharged alive following…

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A prospective study of lifestyle factors and bone health in breast cancer patients who received aromatase inhibitors in an integrated healthcare setting

Fracture and osteoporosis are known side effects of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for postmenopausal hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients. How modifiable lifestyle factors impact fracture risk in these patients is relatively unknown. We conducted a prospective cohort study…

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Interaction of Body Mass Index on the Association Between N-Terminal-Pro-b-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Morbidity and Mortality in Patients With Acute Heart Failure: Findings From ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure).

BACKGROUND: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower circulating levels of N-terminal-pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The Interaction between BMI and NT-proBNP with respect to clinical outcomes is not well characterized in patients with acute heart failure. METHODS AND…

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Prevalent digoxin use and subsequent risk of death or hospitalization in ambulatory heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction-Findings from the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) randomized controlled trial.

BACKGROUND: Despite more than 200 years of clinical experience and a pivotal trial, recently published research has called into question the safety and efficacy of digoxin therapy in heart failure (HF). METHODS: HF-ACTION (ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT00047437) enrolled 2331 outpatients with…

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Virtual optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy in hospitalized patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the IMPLEMENT-HF pilot study.

AIMS: Implementation of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) remains incomplete. Non-cardiovascular hospitalization may present opportunities for GDMT optimization. We assessed the efficacy and durability of a virtual, multidisciplinary 'GDMT Team' on medical therapy…

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Characteristics of clinical trials evaluating cardiovascular therapies for Coronavirus Disease 2019 Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: a cross sectional analysis.

Morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 has increased exponentially, and patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease are at risk for poor outcomes. Several lines of evidence suggest a potential role for CV therapies in COVID-19 treatment. Characteristics of clinical trials of…

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De Novo vs Acute-on-Chronic Presentations of Heart Failure-Related Cardiogenic Shock: Insights from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network Registry.

BACKGROUND: Heart failure-related cardiogenic shock (HF-CS) accounts for an increasing proportion of cases of CS in contemporary cardiac intensive care units. Whether the chronicity of HF identifies distinct clinical profiles of HF-CS is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated admissions…

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Relationship Between Myocardial Injury During Index Hospitalization for SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Longer-Term Outcomes.

Background Myocardial injury in patients with COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality during index hospitalization; however, the relationship to long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. This study assessed the relationship between myocardial injury (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T level) during index…

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Sacubitril/valsartan use patterns among older adults with heart failure in clinical practice: a population-based cohort study of >25 000 Medicare beneficiaries.

AIMS: Sacubitril/valsartan is strongly supported in guidelines for the management of heart failure, but suboptimal adherence and treatment non-persistence may limit the population-level benefit that this therapy might otherwise offer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified a cohort of Medicare beneficiaries…

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Epidemiology and Management of ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients With COVID-19: A Report From the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease Registry.

Background Early reports from the COVID-19 pandemic identified coronary thrombosis leading to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) as a complication of COVID-19 infection. However, the epidemiology of STEMI in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. We sought to determine the…

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High-sensitivity troponin I is associated with cardiovascular outcomes but not with breast arterial calcification among postmenopausal women

Prior studies support the utility of high sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification among asymptomatic populations; however, only two prior studies examined women separately. The association between hsTnI and breast arterial calcification is unknown. Cohort study…

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Adverse events after initiating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker therapy in individuals with heart failure and multimorbidity

Current clinical practice guidelines recommend routine kidney function and serum potassium testing within 30 days of initiating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy. However, evidence is lacking on whether routine follow-up testing reduces therapy-related adverse…

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Go, Alan S.

Alan S. Go, MD, Regional Medical Director of Kaiser Permanente Northern California Clinical Trials Program; Associate Director, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Conditions Research at Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research
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Genome-wide association analyses of physical activity and sedentary behavior provide insights into underlying mechanisms and roles in disease prevention

Although physical activity and sedentary behavior are moderately heritable, little is known about the mechanisms that influence these traits. Combining data for up to 703,901 individuals from 51 studies in a multi-ancestry meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies yields 99 loci…

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Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity from young adulthood to middle age and metabolic disease: a 30-year population-based cohort study

To determine the association between moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories (course over age and time) through the adult life course and onset of metabolic disease (diabetes and dyslipidaemia). We analysed prospective community-based cohort data of 5115 participants in the…

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ReducinG stroke by screening for UndiAgnosed atRial fibrillation in elderly inDividuals (GUARD-AF): Rationale and Design of the GUARD-AF Randomized Trial of Screening for Atrial Fibrillation with a 14-day Patch-Based Continuous ECG Monitor

Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) is attractive because AF independently raises the risk of ischemic stroke, this risk is largely reversible by long-term oral anticoagulant therapy (OAC), and many patients with AF remain undiagnosed and untreated. Recent trials of one-time…

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Framingham and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations, High-Sensitivity Troponin T, and N-Terminal Pro-Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide for Predicting Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Events Across the Spectrum of Kidney Dysfunction

Background Contemporary guidelines recommend using atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease screening tools to guide primary prevention. The performance of these scores is not well known in patients with moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease, particularly in combination with clinically available cardiac biomarkers…

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Usage of long-acting muscarinic antagonists and biologics as add-on therapy for patients in the United States with moderate-to-severe asthma

Many asthma patients remain uncontrolled on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta agonists (LABAs), but guidance for selecting add-on therapies, including long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) or biologics, is limited. We describe how prescribing practices for add-on LAMA and biologic therapy…

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Reduced cardiovascular risks in women with endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome carrying a common functional IGF1R variant

Is the increased future cardiovascular risk seen in women with endometriosis or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) mitigated by functional insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2016347 as previously shown in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy? This cohort…

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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitor Management in Patients Admitted in Hospital with COVID-19

Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) are commonly used among patients hospitalized with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated whether continuation versus discontinuation of RAASi were associated with short term clinical or biochemical…

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Establishing a National Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System in the United States Using Electronic Health Record Data: Key Strengths and Limitations

Cardiovascular disease surveillance involves quantifying the evolving population-level burden of cardiovascular outcomes and risk factors as a data-driven initial step followed by the implementation of interventional strategies designed to alleviate this burden in the target population. Despite widespread acknowledgement of…

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Prognostic Accuracy of Presepsis and Intrasepsis Characteristics for Prediction of Cardiovascular Events After a Sepsis Hospitalization

Sepsis survivors face increased risk for cardiovascular complications; however, the contribution of intrasepsis events to cardiovascular risk profiles is unclear. Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) and Intermountain Healthcare (IH) integrated healthcare delivery systems. Sepsis survivors (2011-2017 [KPNC] and 2018-2020 [IH])…

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Global assessment improves risk stratification for major adverse cardiac events across a wide range of triglyceride levels: Insights from the KP REACH study

Patients with risk factors for or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remain at high risk for subsequent ischemic events despite statin therapy. Triglyceride (TG) levels may contribute to residual ASCVD risk, and the performance of global risk assessment calculators across…

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Blood Pressure and Later-Life Cognition in Hispanic and White Adults (BP-COG): A Pooled Cohort Analysis of ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, FOS, MESA, and NOMAS

Ethnic differences in cognitive decline have been reported. Whether they can be explained by differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP) is uncertain. Determine whether cumulative mean SBP levels explain differences in cognitive decline between Hispanic and White individuals. Pooled cohort…

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Time-Updated Changes in Estimated GFR and Proteinuria and Major Adverse Cardiac Events: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

Evaluating repeated measures of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary protein-creatinine ratio (UPCR) over time may enhance our ability to understand the association between changes in kidney parameters and cardiovascular disease risk. Prospective cohort study. Annual visit data from…

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Association of circulating cardiac biomarkers with electrocardiographic abnormalities in chronic kidney disease

Among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the circulating cardiac biomarkers soluble ST2 (SST2), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin-T (hsTnT) possibly reflect pathophysiologic processes and are associated with clinical cardiovascular disease. Whether…

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Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis following major vascular surgery is a new item on the differential for postoperative acidosis

New pharmacologic advances in the treatment of diabetes include SGLT-2 inhibitors, which have been demonstrated in randomized-controlled clinical trials to reduce overall and cardiac-specific mortality and slow progression of chronic kidney disease. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis is a rare but life-threatening…

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Physician adjudication of angioedema diagnosis codes in a population of patients with heart failure prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy

Our objective was to calculate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the ICD-9 diagnosis code for angioedema when physicians adjudicate the events by electronic health record review. Our secondary objective was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of physician adjudication. Patients…

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Young Adult and Midlife Transitions in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Heart Failure Risk and Progression: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

This CARDIA ancillary study will examine the longitudinal relations of 35-year changes in reported physical activity from young adulthood to late midlife with indicators of subclinical heart failure collected at late midlife, and evaluate interaction in these relations by race,…

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A Natural Language Processing-Based Approach for Identifying Hospitalizations for Worsening Heart Failure Within an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

The current understanding of epidemiological mechanisms and temporal trends in hospitalizations for worsening heart failure (WHF) is based on claims and national reporting databases. However, these data sources are inherently limited by the accuracy and completeness of diagnostic coding and/or…

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Triglyceride Levels and Residual Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Events and Death in Adults Receiving Statin Therapy for Primary or Secondary Prevention: Insights From the KP REACH Study

Background Patients with risk factors or established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remain at high-risk for ischemic events. Triglyceride levels may play a causal role. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective study of adults aged ≥45 years receiving statin therapy, with a…

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Primary Nephrotic Syndrome and Risks of ESKD, Cardiovascular Events, and Death: The Kaiser Permanente Nephrotic Syndrome Study

Little population-based data exist about adults with primary nephrotic syndrome. To evaluate kidney, cardiovascular, and mortality outcomes in adults with primary nephrotic syndrome, we identified adults within an integrated health care delivery system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California) with nephrotic-range proteinuria…

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Cardiovascular risk and functional burden at midlife: Prospective associations of isotemporal reallocations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in the CARDIA study

Cardiovascular risk and functional burden, or the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors coupled with functional decline, may be an important risk state analogy to multimorbidity. We investigated prospective associations of sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate…

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Safety and Efficacy of Intravenous Ferric Derisomaltose Compared to Iron Sucrose for Iron Deficiency Anemia in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease With and Without Heart Failure

Ferric derisomaltose (FDI) is an intravenous (IV) high-dose iron formulation approved in the US for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adults who are intolerant of/have had an unsatisfactory response to oral iron, or who have non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney…

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer-derived physical activity and stationary behavior with self-reported mental and physical health during midlife

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is associated with favorable self-rated mental and physical health. Conversely, poor self-rated health in these domains could precede unfavorable shifts in activity. We evaluated bidirectional associations of accelerometer-estimated time spent in stationary behavior (SB), light…

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Pregnancy-Associated Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Clinical Characteristics, Outcomes, and Risk During Subsequent Pregnancy

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a common cause of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction. This study compares the clinical course and longitudinal follow-up of 22 cases of pregnancy-associated SCAD (P-SCAD) with 285 cases of non-pregnancy SCAD (NP-SCAD) from Kaiser Permanente Northern…

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with knee pain, stiffness, and physical function: The CARDIA study

The objective was to examine bidirectional associations of accelerometer estimated sedentary time and physical activity with reported knee symptoms. Participants were 2,034 adults (mean age 45.3 ± 3.6 years, 58.7% female) from CARDIA. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regression and linear mixed regression…

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Cumulative Marijuana Use and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness at Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Long-term cardiovascular health effects of marijuana are understudied. Future cardiovascular disease is often indicated by subclinical atherosclerosis for which carotid intima-media thickness is an established parameter. Using the data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a…

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Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Unique Opportunities for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

This statement summarizes evidence that adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, small-for-gestational-age delivery, placental abruption, and pregnancy loss increase a woman's risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and of developing…

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Rationale and Design of the Pragmatic Randomized Trial of Icosapent Ethyl for High Cardiovascular Risk Adults (MITIGATE)

The MITIGATE study aims to evaluate the real-world clinical effectiveness of pre-treatment with icosapent ethyl (IPE), compared with usual care, on laboratory-confirmed viral upper respiratory infection (URI)-related morbidity and mortality in adults with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). IPE is…

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Longitudinal Associations of Fitness and Obesity in Young Adulthood With Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in Middle Age: The CARDIA Study

Background Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity are risk factors for heart failure but their associations with right ventricular (RV) systolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) are not well understood. Methods and Results Participants in the CARDIA (Coronary…

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Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum and subsequent risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Danish women: A cohort study

One-fourth of women experience substantially higher weight years after childbirth. We examined weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum according to subsequent maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a cohort study of 47,966 women with…

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Adverse Childhood Experiences and Early and Continued Breastfeeding: Findings from an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

Purpose: To examine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with breastfeeding behaviors. Methods: Women in three Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers were screened for ACEs during standard prenatal care (N = 926). Multivariable binary and multinomial logistic regression was used…

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Association between marijuana use and electrocardiographic abnormalities by middle age The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

To evaluate the prevalence of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in marijuana users as an indirect measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Longitudinal and cross-sectional secondary data analysis from the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Four communities in…

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Management of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System blockade in patients admitted to hospital with confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection (The McGill RAAS-COVID- 19): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

The aim of the RAAS-COVID-19 randomized control trial is to evaluate whether an upfront strategy of temporary discontinuation of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition versus continuation of RAAS inhibition among patients admitted with established COVID-19 infection has an impact…

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Longitudinal Associations of Midlife Accelerometer Determined Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity With Cognitive Function: The CARDIA Study

Background To determine if accelerometer measured sedentary behavior (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in midlife is prospectively associated with cognitive function. Methods and Results Participants were 1970 adults enrolled in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk…

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A Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Pragmatic Phase 3 Study Investigating the Efficacy and Safety of Rivaroxaban to Reduce the Risk of Major Venous and Arterial Thrombotic Events in Medically Ill Outpatients with Acute Symptomatic COVID-19 (PRE

This virtual, pragmatic randomized clinical trial will evaluate whether rivaroxaban reduces the risk of a composite endpoint of major venous and arterial thrombotic events, all-cause hospitalization, and all-cause mortality compared with placebo in outpatients with acute, symptomatic COVID-19 infection.

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A prospective cohort study that examined acute kidney injury and kidney outcomes, cardiovascular events and death informs on long-term clinical outcomes

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported to be associated with excess risks of death, kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events although previous studies have important limitations. To further examine this, we prospectively studied adults from four clinical centers surviving…

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Population-based identification and temporal trend of children with primary nephrotic syndrome: The Kaiser Permanente nephrotic syndrome study

Limited population-based data exist about children with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS). We identified a cohort of children with primary NS receiving care in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, an integrated healthcare delivery system caring for >750,000 children. We identified all children…

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Pre-Statistical Considerations for Harmonization of Cognitive Instruments: Harmonization of ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, FHS, MESA, and NOMAS

Meta-analyses of individuals' cognitive data are increasing to investigate the biomedical, lifestyle, and sociocultural factors that influence cognitive decline and dementia risk. Pre-statistical harmonization of cognitive instruments is a critical methodological step for accurate cognitive data harmonization, yet specific approaches…

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Impact of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on longitudinal healthcare utilization in a community-based cohort of patients

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare, chronic lung disease associated with substantial symptom burden, morbidity, and cost. Delivery of high-quality effective care in IPF requires understanding health-care resource utilization (HRU) patterns; however, longitudinal data from real-world populations are limited.…

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