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Elucidating the High and Heterogenous Risk of Gestational Diabetes among Asian Americans: An Integrative Approach of Metabolomics, Lifestyles and Social Determinants

This study will leverage the California Alpha-fetoprotein Screening Program (CA-AFSP) and the Pregnancy Environment and Lifestyle Study (PETALS) to identify metabolites and pathways among Asian American racial/ethnic subpopulations with gestational diabetes in the CA-AFSP discovery set; validate the shared and…

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Grosvenor, Luke P.

Luke Grosvenor, PhD, is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research and member of the Autism Research Program within the Women’s and Children’s Health Section. His research interests include perinatal health conditions, gene-environment interactions,…

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Developing a National-Scale Exposure Index for Combined Environmental Hazards and Social Stressors and Applications to the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Cohort

Tools for assessing multiple exposures across several domains (e.g., physical, chemical, and social) are of growing importance in social and environmental epidemiology because of their value in uncovering disparities and their impact on health outcomes. Here we describe work done…

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Opportunities for Inclusion and Engagement in the Transition of Autistic Youth from Pediatric to Adult Healthcare: A Qualitative Study

Transitioning autistic youth from pediatric to adult healthcare requires coordination of multiple stakeholders, including youth, caregivers, and pediatric and adult care providers, whose interests at times overlap but often differ. To understand barriers and facilitators to inclusive transition experiences, we…

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The prospective association of hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea and polycystic ovary syndrome with incident gestational diabetes: The coronary artery risk development in young adults women’s study

In this 28-year prospective study of 455 women (mean age: 26 years), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was associated with a 2.6-fold elevated risk of gestational diabetes (GDM). However, hyperandrogenism or oligomenorrhea in the absence of PCOS was not associated with GDM.

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Associations between antidepressant use patterns during pregnancy and birth outcomes among periconception antidepressant users

Little is known about antidepressant medication use patterns during pregnancy among periconception (before and immediately following conception) users. Additionally, the associations between these patterns and birth outcomes is unclear, after taking into account underlying depression severity. This study describes patterns…

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Birth Outcomes in Relation to Prenatal Exposure to Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances and Stress in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are persistent and ubiquitous chemicals associated with risk of adverse birth outcomes. Results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Associations between PFAS and birth outcomes may be affected by psychosocial stress. We estimated risk of…

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SARS-CoV-2 testing and detection during peripartum hospitalizations among a multi-center cohort of pregnant persons, March 2020-February 2021

Identifying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections during peripartum hospitalizations is important to guide care, implement prevention measures, and understand infection burden. This cross-sectional analysis used electronic health record data from hospitalizations during which pregnancies ended (peripartum hospitalizations)…

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Ambient air pollutants are associated with morning serum cortisol in overweight and obese Latino youth in Los Angeles.

BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis dysfunction has been associated with a variety of mental health and cardio-metabolic disorders. While causal models of HPA-axis dysregulation have been largely focused on either pre-existing health conditions or psychosocial stress factors, recent evidence suggests a possible…

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Physical activity and individual plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acids in pregnancy, a longitudinal study among a multiracial/multiethnic cohort in the United States

Circulating individual SFAs in pregnant females are critical for maternal and fetal health. However, research on identifying their modifiable factors is limited. We aimed to examine the associations of total physical activity (PA) and types of PA with circulating individual…

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Examining shortened versions of the Social Responsiveness Scale for use in autism spectrum disorder prediction and as a quantitative trait measure: Results from a validation study of 3-5 year old children

The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a 65-item measure yielding a continuous score capturing autism-related traits. Scores based on SRS item subsets have been analytically examined but administration of shortened versions has not been evaluated prospectively. The goal of this…

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Associations of Neighborhood Opportunity and Social Vulnerability With Trajectories of Childhood Body Mass Index and Obesity Among US Children

Physical and social neighborhood attributes may have implications for children's growth and development patterns. The extent to which these attributes are associated with body mass index (BMI) trajectories and obesity risk from childhood to adolescence remains understudied. To examine associations…

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Plasma Phospholipids Monounsaturated Fatty Acids and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Longitudinal Study in the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort

Fatty acids (FAs) have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the role of monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) remains understudied. We investigated the associations of plasma phospholipid MUFAs in early to mid-pregnancy with cardiometabolic biomarkers and GDM…

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Urinary Phenols in Early to Mid-Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort

Environmental phenols are ubiquitous endocrine disruptors and putatively diabetogenic. However, data during pregnancy are scant. We investigated the prospective associations between pregnancy phenol concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In a nested matched case-control study of 111 individuals with…

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Efficacious lifestyle interventions for appropriate gestational weight gain in women with overweight or obesity set in the health care system: a scoping review

Purpose: Health care systems offer opportunities to scale up interventions for appropriate gestational weight gain (GWG); however, GWG interventions in the health care setting remain largely unavailable to women with overweight or obesity. To inform the translation of efficacious lifestyle…

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Sujan, Ayesha

Ayesha Sujan, PhD, is a postdoctoral research fellow in the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research specializing in maternal mental health and substance use. She completed her doctoral training in the Department of Psychological and Brian Sciences at Indiana University –…

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Association between Quality of Maternal Prenatal Food Source and Preparation and Breastfeeding Duration in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcome (ECHO) Program

This study examined the relationship between maternal food source and preparation during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding among 751 mother-child dyads in the United States. The data collected from the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program included…

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SEED Follow-Up Study

SEED is a case-control study comparing children aged 2-5 years with autism spectrum disorder to children with other developmental disabilities. The SEED Follow-up Study is a longitudinal study designed to improve understanding of risk factors and expression of autism spectrum…

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Peri-Pregnancy Cannabis Use and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Offspring: Findings from the Study to Explore Early Development

The association of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with self-reported maternal cannabis use from 3 months pre-conception to delivery ("peri-pregnancy") was assessed in children aged 30-68 months, born 2003 to 2011. Children with ASD (N = 1428) were compared to children with other developmental delays/disorders…

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Gestational diabetes mellitus, prenatal maternal depression, and risk for postpartum depression: an Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Study

Prior research has demonstrated bidirectional associations between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and perinatal maternal depression. However, the association between GDM, prenatal depression, and postpartum depression (PPD) has not been examined in a prospective cohort longitudinally. Participants in the current analysis…

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Development and validation of prediction models for gestational diabetes treatment modality using supervised machine learning: a population-based cohort study

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is prevalent and benefits from timely and effective treatment, given the short window to impact glycemic control. Clinicians face major barriers to choosing effectively among treatment modalities [medical nutrition therapy (MNT) with or without pharmacologic treatment (antidiabetic…

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Glycemic Control Trajectories and Risk of Perinatal Complications Among Individuals With Gestational Diabetes

Glycemic control is the cornerstone of gestational diabetes management. Glycemic control trajectories account for differences in longitudinal patterns throughout pregnancy; however, studies on glycemic control trajectories are scarce. To examine whether glycemic control trajectories from gestational diabetes diagnosis to delivery…

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In-utero cannabis exposure and long-term psychiatric and neurodevelopmental outcomes: The limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research

Given increases in cannabis use in pregnancy and animal model research showing effects of in-utero cannabis exposure, high-quality information on long-term consequences of in-utero cannabis exposure in humans is needed. While reviews have summarized findings from observational studies with humans,…

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Cardiometabolic Pregnancy Complications in Association with Autism-Related Traits as Measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale in ECHO

Prior work has examined associations between cardiometabolic pregnancy complications and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but not how these complications may relate to social communication traits more broadly. We addressed this question within the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes program,…

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Reach, acceptability, and perceived success of a telehealth diabetes prevention program among racially and ethnically diverse patients with gestational diabetes: the GEM cluster-randomized trial

Patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and from racial/ethnic minority groups face disproportionate risk for type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle interventions, if accessible and acceptable to diverse patients, could advance diabetes prevention and mitigate racial/ethnic disparities. Here we describe overall and race/ethnicity-specific…

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Associations between combined exposure to environmental hazards and social stressors at the neighborhood level and individual perinatal outcomes in the ECHO-wide cohort

Limited studies examine how prenatal environmental and social exposures jointly impact perinatal health. Here we investigated relationships between a neighborhood-level combined exposure (CE) index assessed during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes, including birthweight, gestational age, and preterm birth. Across all participants,…

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A Web-Based mHealth Intervention With Telephone Support to Increase Physical Activity Among Pregnant Patients With Overweight or Obesity: Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial

Pregnant patients with overweight or obesity are at high risk for perinatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) further exacerbates this risk. Mobile health (mHealth) lifestyle interventions that leverage technology to facilitate self-monitoring and provide just-in-time feedback may motivate behavior…

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Examining associations between prenatal biomarkers of oxidative stress and ASD-related outcomes using quantile regression

We examined associations between prenatal oxidative stress (OS) and child autism-related outcomes. Women with an autistic child were followed through a subsequent pregnancy and that younger sibling's childhood. Associations between glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), 8-oxo-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG), and nitrotyrosine and…

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Uptake of guideline-recommended postpartum diabetes screening among diverse women with gestational diabetes: associations with patient factors in an integrated health system in USA

Clinical guidelines urge timely postpartum screening for diabetes among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), yet patient factors associated with screening uptake remain unclear. We aimed to identify patient factors associated with completed postpartum diabetes screening (2-hour oral glucose tolerance…

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The Association of Prenatal Vitamins and Folic Acid Supplement Intake with Odds of Autism Spectrum Disorder in a High-Risk Sibling Cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI)

We examined maternal prenatal vitamin use or supplemental folic acid intake during month one of pregnancy for association with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation, an enriched-risk pregnancy cohort. Total folic acid intake was calculated…

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Longitudinal Associations of Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids in Pregnancy with Neonatal Anthropometry: Results from the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort

Despite increasing interest in the health effects of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), their roles in fetal and neonatal growth remain understudied. Within the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort, we prospectively investigated the associations of individual and subclasses of plasma phospholipid PUFAs…

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Respiratory Viral Infections and Infection Prevention Practices among Women with Acute Respiratory Illness during Delivery Hospitalizations during the 2019-2020 Influenza Season

We conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women with acute respiratory illness during delivery hospitalizations during influenza season to describe clinical testing for respiratory viruses and infection prevention practices. Women had nasal swabs tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses.…

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Rates of cardiovascular events among patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis in an integrated health care system: A retrospective cohort study

Patients with versus without atopic dermatitis may have a greater risk of cardiovascular events, and the risk increases with severity of atopic dermatitis. The incidence of cardiovascular events in the population of patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis is largely unknown.…

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Contributions of COVID-19 Pandemic-Related Stressors to Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health During Pregnancy

This study aimed to identify racial and ethnic disparities in prenatal mental health and identify COVID-19 pandemic-related health/healthcare and economic contributors to these disparities, using an established framework for disparity investigation. This cross-sectional study includes 10,930 pregnant people at Kaiser…

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Plasma Acylcarnitines during Pregnancy and Neonatal Anthropometry: A Longitudinal Study in a Multiracial Cohort

As surrogate readouts reflecting mitochondrial dysfunction, elevated levels of plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with cardiometabolic disorders, such as obesity, gestational diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to examine prospective associations of acylcarnitine profiles across gestation with neonatal…

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Methods-Motivational Interviewing Approach for Enhanced Retention and Attendance

Suboptimal and differential participant engagement in randomized trials-including retention at primary outcome assessments and attendance at intervention sessions-undermines rigor, internal validity, and trial conclusions. First, this study describes Methods-Motivational Interviewing approach and strategies for implementation. This approach engages potential participants…

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Improving clinical utility of GAD65 autoantibodies by electrochemiluminescence assay and clinical phenotype when identifying autoimmune adult-onset diabetes

It is important to differentiate the two major phenotypes of adult-onset diabetes, autoimmune type 1 diabetes and non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes, especially as type 1 diabetes presents in adulthood. Serum GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are the most sensitive biomarker for adult-onset…

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Associations of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity with physical performance outcomes by race/ethnicity in older women

To determine the cross-sectional associations of accelerometer-measured time spent in physical activity intensity categories (sedentary, low and high light intensity, or moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) with physical performance outcomes [stair climb ascent, 40 foot walk test, and…

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Lifestyle-related education and counseling resource utilization and cardiovascular biomarkers in midlife women with low physical activity

Health plan-based resources are promising avenues for decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. This study examined associations of lifestyle-related resource utilization within a healthcare delivery system and cardiovascular biomarkers among midlife women with low physical activity. Midlife women (45-55 years old) with

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Cardiovascular risk and functional burden at midlife: Prospective associations of isotemporal reallocations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in the CARDIA study

Cardiovascular risk and functional burden, or the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors coupled with functional decline, may be an important risk state analogy to multimorbidity. We investigated prospective associations of sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate…

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Associations between longitudinal trajectories of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration with objective physical function in postmenopausal women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

Examine the association between trajectories of self-reported insomnia symptoms and sleep duration over 13 years with objective physical function. We utilized data from 1,627 Study of Women's Health Across the Nation participants, aged 61.9 ± 2.7 years at the end…

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Cervical Cancer Screening Follow-up

This study will use follow-up data on women with cervical specimens collected in the KPNC/NCI HPV biorepository and women in the cervical cancer screening program to investigate novel biomarkers of cervical pre-cancer and epidemiology of disease progression from HPV infection…

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Engagement in perinatal depression treatment: a qualitative study of barriers across and within racial/ethnic groups

To better understand previously observed racial/ethnic disparities in perinatal depression treatment rates we examined care engagement factors across and within race/ethnicity. Obstetric patients and women's health clinician experts from a large healthcare system participated in this qualitative study. We conducted focus…

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Mediating Effects of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors on the Association Between Maternal Race-Ethnicity and Cesarean Delivery Among Low-Risk Women

Background: While racial-ethnic disparities in cesarean delivery rates among nulliparous women delivering a term singleton in the vertex position (NTSV) exist, it remains unclear the extent to which potentially modifiable maternal cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, maternal hyperglycemia and hypertensive disorders)…

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Distributional Properties and Criterion Validity of a Shortened Version of the Social Responsiveness Scale: Results from the ECHO Program and Implications for Social Communication Research

Prior work proposed a shortened version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), a commonly used quantitative measure of social communication traits. We used data from 3031 participants (including 190 ASD cases) from the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO)…

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer-derived physical activity and stationary behavior with self-reported mental and physical health during midlife

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is associated with favorable self-rated mental and physical health. Conversely, poor self-rated health in these domains could precede unfavorable shifts in activity. We evaluated bidirectional associations of accelerometer-estimated time spent in stationary behavior (SB), light…

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Bidirectional associations of accelerometer measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with knee pain, stiffness, and physical function: The CARDIA study

The objective was to examine bidirectional associations of accelerometer estimated sedentary time and physical activity with reported knee symptoms. Participants were 2,034 adults (mean age 45.3 ± 3.6 years, 58.7% female) from CARDIA. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regression and linear mixed regression…

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Evaluation of sex differences in preschool children with and without autism spectrum disorder enrolled in the study to explore early development

Research in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has found sex-based differences in behavioral, developmental, and diagnostic outcomes. These findings have not been consistently replicated in preschool-aged children. We examined sex-based differences in a large sample…

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mHealth Mindfulness Intervention for Women with Moderate-to-Moderately-Severe Antenatal Depressive Symptoms: a Pilot Study Within an Integrated Health Care System

Traditional mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to reduce depression symptoms in pregnant women, although in-person classes may pose significant accessibility barriers, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Mobile technology offers greater convenience, but little is known regarding the efficacy of self-paced,…

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Longitudinal Associations of Midlife Accelerometer Determined Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity With Cognitive Function: The CARDIA Study

Background To determine if accelerometer measured sedentary behavior (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in midlife is prospectively associated with cognitive function. Methods and Results Participants were 1970 adults enrolled in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk…

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Racial and geographic variation in effects of maternal education and neighborhood-level measures of socioeconomic status on gestational age at birth: Findings from the ECHO cohorts

Preterm birth occurs at excessively high and disparate rates in the United States. In 2016, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program to investigate the influence of early life exposures on…

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Prenatal Multivitamin Use and MTHFR Genotype Are Associated with Newborn Cord Blood DNA Methylation

Fetal development involves cellular differentiation and epigenetic changes-complex processes that are sensitive to environmental factors. Maternal nutrient levels during pregnancy affect development, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is important for processing the nutrient folate. We hypothesize that supplement intake before…

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Maternal Vitamin D Levels During Pregnancy in Association With Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) or Intellectual Disability (ID) in Offspring; Exploring Non-linear Patterns and Demographic Sub-groups

Increasing vitamin D deficiency and evidence for vitamin D's role in brain and immune function have recently led to studies of neurodevelopment; however, few are specific to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and vitamin D in pregnancy, a likely susceptibility period.…

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Plasma Phospholipid n-3/n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Desaturase Activities in Relation to Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity through Pregnancy: A Longitudinal Study within the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies

Maternal plasma phospholipid polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play critical roles in maternal health and fetal development. Beyond dietary factors, maternal moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) has been linked to multiple health benefits for both the mother and offspring, but studies investigating…

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Cord blood DNA methylome in newborns later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder reflects early dysregulation of neurodevelopmental and X-linked genes

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with complex heritability and higher prevalence in males. The neonatal epigenome has the potential to reflect past interactions between genetic and environmental factors during early development and influence future health outcomes. We…

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Feasibility of Measuring Preferences for Chemotherapy Among Early-Stage Breast Cancer Survivors Using a Direct Rank Ordering Multicriteria Decision Analysis Versus a Time Trade-Off

Chemotherapy is increasingly a preference-based choice among women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a promising but underutilized method to facilitate shared decision making. We explored the feasibility of conducting an MCDA using direct rank ordering…

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Body mass index versus bioelectrical impedance analysis for classifying physical function impairment in a racially diverse cohort of midlife women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

Body composition strongly influences physical function in older adults. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) differentiates fat mass from skeletal muscle mass, and may be more useful than body mass index (BMI) for classifying women on their likelihood of physical function impairment.…

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COVID-19 Response Grant

Adults with intellectual or developmental disabilities may be especially impacted by the ways the COVID-19 pandemic has led to drastic changes in usual daily routines and the way healthcare encounters have been transitioned to virtual (video, telephone) visits. This project…

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Prenatal bisphenol A exposure, fetal thyroid hormones and neurobehavioral development in children at 2 and 4 years: A prospective cohort study

Findings about the association between prenatal Bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and neurobehavioral development in children are still inconsistent. In addition, whether fetal thyroid hormones (THs) mediate the reported association remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the association between…

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A telehealth lifestyle intervention to reduce excess gestational weight gain in pregnant women with overweight or obesity (GLOW): a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial

Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) among women with overweight or obesity synergistically increases their already elevated risk of having gestational diabetes, a caesarean delivery, a large for gestational age infant, and post-partum weight retention, and increases their child's risk of…

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Association between Objective Activity Intensity and Heart Rate Variability: Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Mediation (CARDIA)

We evaluated the associations between accelerometer-estimated physical activity (PA) intensity and heart rate variability (HRV) and examined mediation of these associations by glycemic control indices and other cardiovascular disease risk factors. Data were from 1668 participants (X[Combining Overline]age = 45.9…

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Chronic psychosocial and financial burden accelerates 5-year telomere shortening: findings from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

Leukocyte telomere length, a marker of immune system function, is sensitive to exposures such as psychosocial stressors and health-maintaining behaviors. Past research has determined that stress experienced in adulthood is associated with shorter telomere length, but is limited to mostly…

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Association Between Maternal Exposure to Magnetic Field Nonionizing Radiation During Pregnancy and Risk of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Offspring in a Longitudinal Birth Cohort

An association between maternal exposure to magnetic field (MF) nonionizing radiation during pregnancy and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been reported in both animal and human studies. To determine whether maternal exposure to high levels of MF nonionizing…

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Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Subsequent Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Intellectual Disability

Hypothyroid conditions in early life, if left untreated, are associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, including intellectual disability (ID). However, evidence addressing the role of neonatal thyroid hormone insufficiencies in the altered neurobiology underlying autism spectrum disorders (ASD), particularly among its…

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Background rates of maternal, fetal, neonatal, and infant outcomes and events of interest to inform maternal immunization clinical trials

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines is currently preparing for clinical trials that evaluate the safety/reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a respiratory syncytial virus maternal vaccine candidate in pregnant women. Robust epidemiological data is needed to support the interpretation of maternal and neonatal outcomes in…

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Association Between Objective Activity Intensity & Heart Rate Variability: CVD Risk Factor Mediation (CARDIA)

We evaluated the associations between accelerometer-estimated physical activity (PA) intensity and heart rate variability (HRV) and examined mediation of these associations by glycemic control indices and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Data were from 1,668 participants (X[Combining Overline]age=45.9±3.5 years,…

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Family Environment, Neurodevelopmental Risk, and the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Initiative: Looking Back and Moving Forward

The family environment, with all its complexity and diverse components, plays a critical role in shaping neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Herein we review several domains of the family environment (family socioeconomic status, family composition and home environment, parenting behaviors and…

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Racial/Ethnic Disparities in the Prevalence of Diabetes and Prediabetes by BMI: Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) Multisite Cohort of Adults in the U.S

To examine racial/ethnic disparities in the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes by BMI category. In a consortium of three U.S. integrated health care systems, 4,906,238 individuals aged ≥20 years during 2012-2013 were included. Diabetes and prediabetes were ascertained by diagnosis…

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Plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to cardiometabolic markers and gestational diabetes: A longitudinal study within the prospective NICHD Fetal Growth Studies

Despite dietary recommendations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for cardiometabolic health, n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and their interplay in relation to diabetes risk remain debated. Importantly, data among pregnant women are scarce. We investigated individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6…

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Enhanced Recovery After Surgery to Change Process Measures and Reduce Opioid Use After Cesarean Delivery: A Quality Improvement Initiative

To evaluate implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program for patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery by comparing opioid exposure, multimodal analgesia use, and other process and outcome measures before and after implementation. An ERAS program was implemented among…

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A Seat at the Table: Strategic Engagement in Service Activities for Early Career Faculty From Underrepresented Groups in the Academy

Many academic institutions strive to promote more diverse and inclusive campuses for faculty, staff, and students. As part of this effort, these institutions seek to include individuals from historically underrepresented groups (URGs)-such as women, people from racial/ethnic minority populations, persons…

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