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Opportunities for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic and child health in the United States: the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program

Ongoing pediatric cohort studies offer opportunities to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children's health. With well-characterized data from tens of thousands of US children, the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program offers such an opportunity.…

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Association of Racial Residential Segregation Throughout Young Adulthood and Cognitive Performance in Middle-aged Participants in the CARDIA Study

Neighborhood-level residential segregation is implicated as a determinant for poor health outcomes in black individuals, but it is unclear whether this association extends to cognitive aging, especially in midlife. To examine the association between cumulative exposure to residential segregation during…

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A Scalable Database of Organ Doses for Common Diagnostic Fluoroscopy Procedures of Children: Procedures of Historical Practice for Use in Radiation Epidemiology Studies

Assessment of health effects from low-dose radiation exposures in patients undergoing diagnostic imaging is an active area of research. High-quality dosimetry information pertaining to these medical exposures is generally not readily available to clinicians or epidemiologists studying radiation-related health risks.…

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Cardiac Biomarkers and Risk of Incident Heart Failure in Chronic Kidney Disease: The CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study

Background Cardiac biomarkers may signal mechanistic pathways involved in heart failure (HF), a leading complication in chronic kidney disease. We tested the associations of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and soluble…

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Prediagnostic serum organochlorine insecticide concentrations and primary liver cancer: A case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts

Although experimental evidence indicates that certain organochlorine insecticides are hepatocarcinogens, epidemiologic evidence for most of these chemicals is very limited. We estimated associations, using prospectively collected sera, between organochlorine insecticide concentrations and cancer registry-identified primary liver cancer in two cohorts,…

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Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Relation to Family Characteristics, Stressors and Chemical Co-Exposures in California Girls

Childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes and may disproportionately burden lower socioeconomic status groups, exacerbating health disparities. We explored associations of demographic factors, stressful life events, and chemical co-exposures, with cotinine levels,…

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Perceived and objective characteristics of the neighborhood environment are associated with accelerometer-measured sedentary time and physical activity, the CARDIA Study

We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of neighborhood environment characteristics with accelerometer-measured sedentary time (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). Participants were 2120 men and women in the year 20 (2005-2006) and year 30 CARDIA…

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A meta-analysis of two high-risk prospective cohort studies reveals autism-specific transcriptional changes to chromatin, autoimmune, and environmental response genes in umbilical cord blood

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects more than 1% of children in the USA. ASD risk is thought to arise from both genetic and environmental factors, with the perinatal period as a critical window. Understanding early…

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Reducing risk of Clostridium difficile infection and overall use of antibiotic in the outpatient treatment of urinary tract infection

Risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) following antibiotic treatment specifically for urinary tract infection (UTI) has not been evaluated. We conducted a nested case-control study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2007-2010, to assess antibiotic prescribing and other factors in…

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High-resolution mapping of traffic related air pollution with Google street view cars and incidence of cardiovascular events within neighborhoods in Oakland, CA

Some studies have linked long-term exposure to traffic related air pollutants (TRAP) with adverse cardiovascular health outcomes; however, previous studies have not linked highly variable concentrations of TRAP measured at street-level within neighborhoods to cardiovascular health outcomes. Long-term pollutant concentrations…

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Prenatal Maternal Serum Concentrations of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances in Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

Emerging work has examined neurodevelopmental outcomes following prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), but few studies have assessed associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our objective was to estimate associations of maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations with ASD and…

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Prenatal Serum Concentrations of Brominated Flame Retardants and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability in the Early Markers of Autism Study: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in California

Prior studies suggest neurodevelopmental impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but few have examined diagnosed developmental disorders. Our aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability…

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Maternal consumption of artificially sweetened beverages during pregnancy, and offspring growth through 7 years of age: a prospective cohort study

Artificial sweeteners are widely replacing caloric sweeteners. Data on long-term impact of artificially sweetened beverage (ASB) consumption during pregnancy on offspring obesity risk are lacking. We prospectively investigated intake of ASBs and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) during pregnancy in relation to…

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Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are neurodevelopmental toxicants, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to determine whether prenatal exposure to PCBs and OCPs influences offspring risk of ASD and intellectual disability…

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Independent Maternal and Fetal Genetic Effects on Mid-gestational Circulating Levels of Environmental Pollutants

Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal midpregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring…

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Consequences of kriging and land use regression for PM2.5 predictions in epidemiologic analyses: insights into spatial variability using high-resolution satellite data

​Many epidemiological studies use predicted air pollution exposures as surrogates for true air pollution levels. These predicted exposures contain exposure measurement error, yet simulation studies have typically found negligible bias in resulting health effect estimates. However, previous studies typically assumed…

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Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors

To investigate the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS) while accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Participants included members of Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan, Northern California Region (KPNC) (1235 MS cases and 697 controls). Logistic regression…

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Oral Bisphenol A (BPA) given to rats at moderate doses is associated with erectile dysfunction, cavernosal lipofibrosis and alterations of global gene transcription

Bisphenol A (BPA), a suspected reproductive biohazard and endocrine disruptor, released from plastics is associated with ED in occupationally exposed workers. However, in rats, despite the induction of hypogonadism, apoptosis of the penile corporal smooth muscle (SM), fat infiltration into…

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Chronic High Dose Intraperitoneal Bisphenol A (BPA) Induces Substantial Histological and Gene Expression Alterations in Rat Penile Tissue Without Impairing Erectile Function

Bisphenol A (BPA), released from plastics and dental sealants, is a suspected endocrine disruptor and reproductive toxicant. In occupationally exposed workers, BPA has been associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). To determine whether long-term exposure to high doses of BPA in…

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Modification by hemochromatosis gene polymorphisms of the association between traffic-related air pollution and cognition in older men: a cohort study

​​BACKGROUND:Previous studies found effect modification of associations between traffic-related air pollution and cardiovascular outcomes by polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis gene (HFE). As traffic-related air pollution may impact cognition through effects on cardiovascular health or through mechanisms which may also influence…

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Association between long-term exposure to traffic particles and blood pressure in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study

​OBJECTIVES:Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular events, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. The main objective was to assess the relationship between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure (BP).METHODS:The authors used longitudinal data from 853…

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Residential black carbon exposure and circulating markers of systemic inflammation in elderly males: the normative aging study

​BACKGROUND:Traffic-related particles (TRPs) are associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The exact mechanisms are unclear, but systemic inflammatory responses likely play a role.OBJECTIVES:We conducted a repeated measures study among male participants of the Normative Aging Study in the greater Boston, Massachusetts,…

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Medium-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and markers of inflammation and endothelial function

​BACKGROUND:Exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) contributes to increased cardiovascular risk. Land-use regression models can improve exposure assessment for TRAP.OBJECTIVES:We examined the association between medium-term concentrations of black carbon (BC) estimated by land-use regression and levels of soluble intercellular adhesion…

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Measuring the neighborhood environment: associations with young girls’ energy intake and expenditure in a cross-sectional study

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neighborhood environments affect children's health outcomes. Observational methods used to assess neighborhoods can be categorized as indirect, intermediate, or direct. Direct methods, involving in-person audits of the neighborhoods conducted by trained observers, are recognized as an accurate representation…

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DDT and DDE exposure in mothers and time to pregnancy in daughters

Reproductive-tract anomalies after administration of the potent oestrogen, diethylstilboestrol, in pregnant women raised concerns about the reproductive effects of exposure to weakly oestrogenic environmental contaminants such as bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) or its metabolites, such as bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE). We measured p,p'-DDT and…

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