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Plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to cardiometabolic markers and gestational diabetes: A longitudinal study within the prospective NICHD Fetal Growth Studies

Despite dietary recommendations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for cardiometabolic health, n-3 and n-6 PUFAs and their interplay in relation to diabetes risk remain debated. Importantly, data among pregnant women are scarce. We investigated individual plasma phospholipid n-3 and n-6…

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Diagnostic thresholds for pregnancy hyperglycemia, maternal weight status and the risk of childhood obesity in a diverse Northern California cohort using health care delivery system data

To estimate the risk of childhood obesity associated with the various criteria proposed for diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM), and the joint effects with maternal BMI. Cohort study of 46,396 women delivering at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care…

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A Tailored Letter Based on Electronic Health Record Data Improves Gestational Weight Gain Among Women With Gestational Diabetes: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Evaluate whether a tailored letter improved gestational weight gain (GWG) and whether GWG mediated a multicomponent intervention's effect on postpartum weight retention among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster-randomized controlled trial of 44 medical facilities (n = 2,014…

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A prospective and longitudinal study of plasma phospholipid saturated fatty acid profile in relation to cardiometabolic biomarkers and the risk of gestational diabetes

Data on saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in relation to metabolic function and glucose homeostasis remain controversial. Such data are lacking among pregnant women. We prospectively investigated objectively measured individual and subclasses of plasma phospholipid SFAs throughout pregnancy in relation to…

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Association Between Gestational Diabetes and Incident Maternal CKD: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk for diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated whether GDM is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD), controlling for prepregnancy risk factors for both conditions. Prospective cohort. Of…

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Maternal dietary intakes of refined grains during pregnancy and growth through the first 7 y of life among children born to women with gestational diabetes

Background: Refined grains, a major source of dietary carbohydrates, have been related to impaired glucose homeostasis and obesity. Emerging animal data suggest that in utero exposure to dietary refined carbohydrates may predispose offspring to an obese phenotype, indicating a potential…

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Hospital Supplementation Differentially Impacts the Association Between Breastfeeding Intention and Duration Among Women With and Without Gestational Diabetes Mellitus History

Little is known about how in-hospital supplementation with water, infant formula, or sugar water affects the relationship between breastfeeding intentions and duration, and whether this differs by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) history. Our study objectives were to assess the associations…

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​A longitudinal study of sleep duration in pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes: findings from a prospective, multiracial cohort.

BACKGROUND: Both short and prolonged sleep duration have been linked to impaired glucose metabolism. Sleep patterns change during pregnancy, but prospective data are limited on their relation to gestational diabetes.OBJECTIVE: We sought to prospectively examine the trimester-specific (first and second…

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​A longitudinal study of iron status during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes: findings from a prospective, multiracial cohort.

​AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to prospectively and longitudinally investigate maternal iron status during early to mid-pregnancy, and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), using a comprehensive panel of conventional and novel iron biomarkers.METHODS: A case-control study…

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Translational Diabetes Prevention in GDM

This is a lifestyle intervention project tailored to pregnant and postpartum women with gestational diabetes (GDM) and designed to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The intervention will start during pregnancy soon after GDM diagnosis and will continue postpartum.…

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​​Growth and obesity through the first 7 years of life in association with levels of maternal glycemia during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

​BACKGROUND: Given the long-term adverse sequelae of childhood obesity, identification of early life factors related to fetal growth and childhood obesity is warranted. Investigation on growth and obesity in early life in association with intrauterine exposure to maternal hyperglycemia, a…

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The Comparative Effectiveness of Diabetes Prevention Strategies to Reduce Postpartum Weight Retention in Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

To compare the effectiveness of diabetes prevention strategies addressing postpartum weight retention for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivered at the health system level: mailed recommendations (usual care) versus usual care plus a Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)-derived lifestyle intervention.…

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The study of women, infant feeding and type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy and growth of their offspring (SWIFT Offspring study): prospective design, methodology and baseline characteristics

Breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of becoming overweight or obese later in life. Breastfed babies grow more slowly during infancy than formula-fed babies. Among offspring exposed in utero to maternal glucose intolerance, prospective data on growth during infancy have…

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Lactation intensity and fasting plasma lipids, lipoproteins, non-esterified free fatty acids, leptin and adiponectin in postpartum women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: The SWIFT cohort

Lactation may influence future progression to type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, biomarkers associated with progression to glucose intolerance have not been examined in relation to lactation intensity among postpartum women with previous GDM. This study investigates…

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History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Future Risk of Atherosclerosis in Mid-life: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study

History of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which increase risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether GDM increases risk of early atherosclerosis independent of pre-pregnancy obesity…

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Low Prepregnancy Adiponectin Concentrations Are Associated With a Marked Increase in Risk for Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

To examine whether circulating total and high-molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin concentrations, measured before pregnancy, are associated with subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This was a nested case-control study among women who participated in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California…

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The Role of Lactation in GDM Women

Lactating women exhibit more favorable blood glucose and insulin profiles, as well as increased insulin sensitivity than nonlactating women. Yet, much less is known about whether these favorable effects on metabolic risk factors persist long-term among women with gestational diabetes…

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Comparison of Hemoglobin A1c With Fasting Plasma Glucose and 2-h Postchallenge Glucose for Risk Stratification Among Women With Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

OBJECTIVE: Postpartum testing with a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test or fasting plasma glucose (FPG) alone is often not performed among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Use of hemoglobin A(1c) (A1C) might increase testing. The association…

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Longitudinal study of prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: The CARDIA study

This study examined prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in subsequent pregnancies. The authors selected 1,164 women without diabetes before pregnancy who delivered 1,809 livebirths between 5 consecutive examinations from 1985 to 2006 in the Coronary Artery…

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Duration of lactation and incidence of the metabolic syndrome in women of reproductive age according to gestational diabetes mellitus status: a 20-Year prospective study in CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to prospectively assess the association between lactation duration and incidence of the metabolic syndrome among women of reproductive age. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were 1,399 women (39% black, aged 18-30 years) in…

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Trends in postpartum diabetes screening and subsequent diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus: A report from the Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) Study

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine trends in postpartum glucose screening for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), predictors of screening, trends in postpartum impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, and diabetes and pre-diabetes detected by postpartum…

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A 20-year prospective study of childbearing and incidence of diabetes in young women, controlling for glycemia before conception: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether childbearing increases incidence of type 2 diabetes after accounting for preconception glycemia and gestational glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A prospective, biracial cohort was examined up to five times during 1985-2006 in the…

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