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The Effect of Electronic Nudges on Influenza Vaccination Rate in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: a Prespecified Analysis of the NUDGE-FLU Trial

Influenza vaccines have been demonstrated to effectively reduce the incidence of influenza infection and potentially associated risks of cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite strong guideline and public health endorsements, global influenza vaccination rates in patients with…

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Electronic nudges to increase influenza vaccination uptake in Denmark: a nationwide, pragmatic, registry-based, randomised implementation trial

Influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal despite effectiveness in preventing influenza infection and related complications. We investigated whether behavioural nudges, delivered via a governmental electronic letter system, would increase influenza vaccination uptake among older adults in Denmark. We did a nationwide,…

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VSD Infrastructure

We conduct administrative tasks, data management, and contribute to vaccine safety assessments to support the management and development of the ongoing work of the VSD. This includes producing and maintaining a high-quality electronic data infrastructure encompassing health plan members of…

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Tuberculosis Epidemiologic Studies Consortium III

This study will identify primary care systems and settings that serve non-U.S.-born persons at risk for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and tuberculosis disease; collect retrospective and prospective electronic medical record data; design and implement clinical care-based interventions to improve performance…

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Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adults (MIS-C/A): Case definition & guidelines for data collection, analysis, and presentation of immunization safety data

This is a Brighton Collaboration Case Definition of the term "Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and Adults (MIS-C/A)" to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization. The case definition was developed by topic experts convened by the…

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History of Early Childhood Infections and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Children in a U.S. Integrated Health Care System

Surrogate measures of infectious exposures have been consistently associated with lower childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk. However, recent reports have suggested that physician-diagnosed early-life infections increase ALL risk, thereby raising the possibility that stronger responses to infections might promote…

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SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Hospitalized Pregnant Women: Reasons for Admission and Pregnancy Characteristics – Eight U.S. Health Care Centers, March 1-May 30, 2020

Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), possibly related to changes in their immune system and respiratory physiology* (1). Further, adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm delivery and stillbirth, might be more common among…

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Epidemiology and clinical outcomes of hospitalizations for acute respiratory or febrile illness and laboratory-confirmed influenza among pregnant women during six influenza seasons, 2010-2016

Pregnant women are at increased risk of seasonal influenza hospitalizations, but data about the epidemiology of severe influenza among pregnant women remain largely limited to pandemics. To describe the epidemiology of hospitalizations for acute respiratory infection or febrile illness (ARFI)…

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Background rates of maternal, fetal, neonatal, and infant outcomes and events of interest to inform maternal immunization clinical trials

GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines is currently preparing for clinical trials that evaluate the safety/reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a respiratory syncytial virus maternal vaccine candidate in pregnant women. Robust epidemiological data is needed to support the interpretation of maternal and neonatal outcomes in…

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Cardiac Biomarkers and Risk of Incident Heart Failure in Chronic Kidney Disease: The CRIC (Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort) Study

Background Cardiac biomarkers may signal mechanistic pathways involved in heart failure (HF), a leading complication in chronic kidney disease. We tested the associations of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT), galectin-3, growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and soluble…

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Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate-specific antigen concentration: Insights into prostate involvement and prostate disease risk.

BACKGROUND: The protist Trichomonas vaginalis causes a common, sexually transmitted infection and has been proposed to contribute to the development of chronic prostate conditions, including benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. However, few studies have investigated the extent to which…

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The impact of reactogenicity after the first dose of recombinant zoster vaccine upon the physical functioning and quality of life of older adults: an open phase III trial

Herpes zoster and its related complications are associated with significant medical burden, which negatively affects quality of life and daily functioning of the patients. The recently licensed recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) offers high efficacy but is associated with local and…

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Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Preventing Influenza-associated Hospitalizations During Pregnancy: A Multi-country Retrospective Test Negative Design Study, 2010-2016

To date, no study has examined influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations during pregnancy. The Pregnancy Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (PREVENT) consisted of public health or healthcare systems with integrated laboratory, medical, and vaccination records in Australia, Canada…

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Comparison of msp genotyping and a 24 SNP molecular assay for differentiating Plasmodium falciparum recrudescence from reinfection

Current World Health Organization guidelines for conducting anti-malarial drug efficacy clinical trials recommend genotyping Plasmodium falciparum genes msp1 and msp2 to distinguish recrudescence from reinfection. A more recently developed potential alternative to this method is a molecular genotyping assay based…

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Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States

Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries currently using pentavalent DTaP combination vaccines. This open-label, randomized, multicenter study (NCT02096263) conducted in…

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Immunogenicity and safety of the Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine co-administered with human rotavirus, hepatitis A and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: results from a phase III, randomized, multicenter study in infants

This phase III, open-label, randomized study (NCT01978093) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of co-administered Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenCY-TT) with human rotavirus vaccine (HRV), hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate…

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Reducing risk of Clostridium difficile infection and overall use of antibiotic in the outpatient treatment of urinary tract infection

Risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection (CA-CDI) following antibiotic treatment specifically for urinary tract infection (UTI) has not been evaluated. We conducted a nested case-control study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2007-2010, to assess antibiotic prescribing and other factors in…

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Helicobacter pylori Infection Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus: An Analysis of the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium

Epidemiological studies of Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of Barrett's esophagus (BE) have reported conflicting results. We examined the association between H. pylori infection and BE and sought to determine whether the association is mediated by gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)…

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A Continuation of Assessment of the Impact of Prevnar 13 on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Vaccine Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae After Introduction Into Routine Pediatric and Adult Use for the Period of May 2015 – April 2020

This project will estimate Prevnar 13 (PCV13) vaccine effectiveness against invasive pneumococcal disease using a test-negative design in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California adult population from September 1, 2014, through December 31, 2017. Positive cases will be defined as patients…

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Immunogenicity and safety of the quadrivalent meningococcal ACWY-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in splenectomized or hyposplenic children and adolescents: Results of a phase III, open, non-randomized study

Individuals with functional or anatomic asplenia are at high risk for meningococcal disease. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 1 and 2 doses of the quadrivalent meningococcal serogroups A, C, W, Y tetanus toxoid-conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-TT) in this high-risk…

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Association Between Estimated Cumulative Vaccine Antigen Exposure Through the First 23 Months of Life and Non-Vaccine-Targeted Infections From 24 Through 47 Months of Age

Some parents are concerned that multiple vaccines in early childhood could weaken their child's immune system. Biological data suggest that increased vaccine antigen exposure could increase the risk for infections not targeted by vaccines. To examine estimated cumulative vaccine antigen…

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California Emerging Infections Program

The goal of this project is to determine the age-specific rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization among children, and to describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of pediatric hospitalized case-patients during the influenza season.

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Prediction of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Using Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System

BACKGROUND Predicting recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) remains difficult. We employed a retrospective cohort design. Granular electronic medical record (EMR) data had been collected from patients hospitalized at 21 Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals. The derivation dataset (2007-2013) included data…

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HPV Vaccine Impact Study

The California Emerging Infections Program will collaborate with the California Department of Health Services to develop a comprehensive plan to conduct systematic population-based cervical intraepithelial neoplasia surveillance and implement a pilot project in Alameda County. This population-based surveillance project aims…

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Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies

Vaccines are increasingly targeted toward women of reproductive age, and vaccines to prevent influenza and pertussis are recommended during pregnancy. Prelicensure clinical trials typically have not included pregnant women, and when they are included, trials cannot detect rare events. Thus,…

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Response to Therapy in Antiretroviral Therapy-Na෥ Patients with Isolated Nonnucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-Associated Transmitted Drug Resistance

Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-associated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is the most common type of TDR. Few data guide the selection of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for patients with such resistance. We reviewed treatment outcomes in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients…

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Developing a New Definition and Assessing New Clinical Criteria for Septic Shock: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3)

Septic shock currently refers to a state of acute circulatory failure associated with infection. Emerging biological insights and reported variation in epidemiology challenge the validity of this definition. To develop a new definition and clinical criteria for identifying septic shock…

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Laboratory Measures as Proxies for Primary Care Encounters: Implications for Quantifying Clinical Retention Among HIV-Infected Adults in North America

Because of limitations in the availability of data on primary care encounters, patient retention in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is often estimated using laboratory measurement dates as proxies for clinical encounters, leading to possible outcome misclassification. This study included…

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Stromal immune infiltration in HIV-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with HIV disease history and patient survival

Understanding tumor microenvironment and its impact on prognosis of HIV-related lymphomas may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies. We characterized the relationship between infiltrating immune cells with tumor characteristics, HIV disease history and survival in 80 patients with HIV-related diffuse…

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The Association Between Influenza Vaccination and Other Preventative Health Behaviors in a Cohort of Pregnant Women

Although pregnant women are a high-priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination, vaccination rates in this population remain below target levels. Previous studies have identified sociodemographic predictors of vaccine choice, but relationships between preconception heath behaviors and seasonal influenza vaccination are…

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A comparative study of molecular characteristics of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection

HIV-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may be biologically different from DLBCL in the general population. We compared, by HIV status, the expression and prognostic significance of selected oncogenic markers in DLBCL diagnosed at Kaiser Permanente in California, between 1996…

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Integrating database knowledge and epidemiological design to improve the implementation of data mining methods that evaluate vaccine safety in large healthcare databases

Large healthcare databases maintained by health plans have been widely used to conduct customized protocol-based epidemiological safety studies as well as targeted routine sequential monitoring of suspected adverse events for newly licensed vaccines. These databases also offer a rich data…

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Comparing characteristics of melanoma cases arising in health maintenance organizations with state and national registries

Datasets from large health maintenance organizations (HMOs), particularly those with established cancer registries that report to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, are potentially excellent resources for studying melanoma epidemiology and outcomes. However, generalizability of the findings beyond HMO-based…

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Effectiveness of seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine for preventing influenza virus illness among pregnant women: a population-based case-control study during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons

Although vaccination with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for all pregnant women, no vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies of TIV in pregnant women have assessed laboratory-confirmed influenza outcomes. We conducted a case-control study over 2 influenza seasons (2010-2011 and…

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Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. Factors leading to increased risk…

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Adherence to Immunoprophylaxis Regimens for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Insured and Medicaid Populations

Immunoprophylaxis is the only pharmaceutical intervention for mitigating respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Patient level data on adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) immunoprophylaxis recommendations are limited. This study characterizes adherence to AAP guidelines in privately insured and Medicaid…

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Persistent recurring wheezing in the fifth year of life after laboratory-confirmed, medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infancy is associated with subsequent recurrent wheezing. A retrospective cohort study examined children born at ?32 weeks gestation between 1996-2004. All children were enrolled in an integrated health care delivery system in Northern California…

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Immunogenicity and Safety of Two Tetravalent (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Varicella) Vaccines Co-Administered with Hepatitis A and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines to Children 12 14 Months of Age

BACKGROUND:: This study compared single-dose tetravalent measles, mumps, rubella, varicella (MMRV) vaccine, Priorix-Tetra, stored refrigerated (GSK+4C) or frozen (GSK 20C), with ProQuad (Merck-20C), when co-administered with hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS:: Multicenter, observer-blind Phase…

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Frequency, duration and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care among infants [greater than or equal to]32 weeks gestation in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is common in the first two years of life and is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in this age group. No previous studies have used an episode-of-care analysis to describe the frequency, duration, and predictors of bronchiolitis…

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Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly with measles, mumps, rubella, varicella vaccine in healthy toddlers

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease can have devastating outcomes, especially in high-risk groups such as infants. As infants are recommended to receive multiple vaccines during a single office visit, this phase 3 study assessed the safety and immune response to MenACWY-CRM…

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Risk of Confirmed Guillain-Barre Syndrome Following Receipt of Monovalent Inactivated Influenza A (H1N1) and Seasonal Influenza Vaccines in the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, 2009-2010

An increased risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) following administration of the 1976 swine influenza vaccine led to a heightened focus on GBS when monovalent vaccines against a novel influenza A (H1N1) virus of swine origin were introduced in 2009. GBS…

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Comparative immunogenicity and safety of different multivalent component pertussis vaccine formulations and a 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine in infants and toddlers: A randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter study

BACKGROUND: Pentavalent and quadrivalent combination vaccine formulations from the same manufacturer (DTaP-IPV/Hib [PENTA], DTaP-IPV [QUAD]) were investigated as to whether they were sufficiently interchangeable to tailor use to local preference or availability. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, open-label, 4-armed, multicenter study…

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An open-label, randomized, multi-center study of the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-IPV (Kinrix) co-administered with MMR vaccine with or without varicella vaccine in healthy pre-school age children

BACKGROUND: In the US, it is recommended that 4-6 year old children receive diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella (V), and influenza vaccines. Data relating to the concomitant administration of combination DTaP-IPV vaccine (Kinrix; GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) and…

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Overview of the Clinical Consult Case Review of adverse events following immunization: Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) network 2004-2009

BACKGROUND: In 2004 the Clinical Consult Case Review (CCCR) working group was formed within the CDC-funded Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment (CISA) Network to review individual cases of adverse events following immunizations (AEFI). METHODS: Cases were referred by practitioners, health departments,…

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Risk factors for tuberculosis after highly active antiretroviral therapy initiation in the United States and Canada: implications for tuberculosis screening

BACKGROUND: Screening for tuberculosis prior to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation is not routinely performed in low-incidence settings. Identifying factors associated with developing tuberculosis after HAART initiation could focus screening efforts. METHODS: Sixteen cohorts in the United States and…

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Missing data on the estimation of the prevalence of accumulated human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance in patients treated with antiretroviral drugs in north america

Determination of the prevalence of accumulated antiretroviral drug resistance among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is complicated by the lack of routine measurement in clinical care. By using data from 8 clinic-based cohorts from the North American AIDS…

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Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine When Coadministered With Diphtheria-tetanus-acellular Pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae Type B Vaccines in Children 15 Months of Age

BACKGROUND: This study (NCT00197236) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine when coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in children 15 months of age. METHODS: This was an open-labeled,…

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Vaccine safety in special populations

Studies evaluating the safety of vaccines routinely administered to a population of healthy infants and children may not provide adequate reassurance for members of special populations such as premature infants and children with chronic conditions. However, evaluating the safety of…

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Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of an investigational and a licensed quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine in children 2-10 years of age

BACKGROUND: Routine administration of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine to adolescents and certain high risk groups is recommended in the United States and Canada. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine conjugated to CRM-197 (MenACWY-CRM) with…

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Recurrent wheezing in the third year of life among children born at 32 weeks’ gestation or later: relationship to laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with respiratory syncytial virus during the first year of life

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the relationship between recurrent wheezing (RW) in the third year of life and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, prematurity, and neonatal oxygen exposure. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study linking inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory databases for cohort assembly and…

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Lack of association between acellular pertussis vaccine and seizures in early childhood

OBJECTIVES: Receipt of diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis [DTP]) is associated with seizures. Limited population-based studies have been conducted on the risk for seizures after receipt of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis [DTaP]). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from…

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Post-marketing safety evaluation of a tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid and 3-component acellular pertussis vaccine administered to a cohort of adolescents in a United States health maintenance organization

BACKGROUND: Prelicensure clinical studies may not include sufficient numbers of subjects to assess the potential for rare postvaccination adverse events. The aim of this postlicensure study (NCT00297856) was to evaluate uncommon outcomes following vaccination with a tetanus, reduced-antigen-content diphtheria, and…

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Prostatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and prostate cancer: the California Men’s Health Study

BACKGROUND: Prostatitis and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been positively associated with prostate cancer in previous case-control studies. However, results from recent prospective studies have been inconclusive. METHODOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the association between prostatitis, STDs, and prostate cancer among…

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Syphilis epidemiology and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients in Kaiser Permanente Northern California

BACKGROUND: Syphilis rates are rising in California, but the impact of HIV infection on syphilis infection remains uncertain. We describe differences between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients diagnosed with syphilis within Kaiser Permanente Northern California. METHODS: We performed retrospective analyses of…

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Trends in multidrug treatment failure and subsequent mortality among antiretroviral therapy-experienced patients with HIV infection in North America

BACKGROUND: Although combination antiretroviral therapy continues to evolve, with potentially more effective options emerging each year, the ability of therapy to prevent multiple regimen failure and mortality in clinical practice remains poorly defined. METHODS: Sixteen cohorts representing over 60 sites…

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Virologic outcomes of changing enfuvirtide to raltegravir in HIV-1 patients well controlled on an enfuvirtide based regimen: 24-week results of the CHEER study

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety and efficacy of changing enfuvirtide to raltegravir in HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA below the level of quantification for at least 6 months on an enfuvirtide-containing antiretroviral regimen. DESIGN: Prospective, nonrandomized, historical control study. METHODS:…

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Efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted and unboosted atazanavir among antiretroviral-naive patients

PURPOSE: Evaluate responses and safety of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir ('boosted atazanavir') compared to unboosted atazanavir among antiretroviral-naive patients in the clinical managed care setting. METHOD: Observational cohort analysis of atazanavir use (comparing ritonavir-boosted to non-boosted) at Kaiser Permanente and Group Health…

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The epidemiology of newly diagnosed chronic liver disease in gastroenterology practices in the United States: results from population-based surveillance

OBJECTIVES: Chronic liver disease (CLD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but the epidemiology is not well described. We conducted prospective population-based surveillance to estimate newly diagnosed CLD incidence, characterize etiology distribution, and determine disease stage. METHODS: We…

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Case-control study of antibiotic use and subsequent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients

OBJECTIVE: To determine which antibiotics increase or decrease the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: Nonprofit, integrated healthcare delivery system in Northern California. PATIENTS: Study participants included patients with cases of hospital-acquired CDAD that occurred…

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Serological detection of human papillomavirus type 16 infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women

Serial measurement of antibodies has not been used to provide evidence of active viral replication of human papillomavirus (HPV). Serum specimens from sequential study visits contributed by 642 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 116 HIV-negative participants enrolled in the Women's…

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Hospital-level rates of fluoroquinolone use and the risk of hospital-acquired infection with ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa

BACKGROUND: In recent years, Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become increasingly resistant to fluoroquinolones, and fluoroquinolone use in the United States has also increased. Our objective was to determine whether higher hospital-level rates of use of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin antimicrobials were…

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HIV-1 Protease and reverse-transcriptase mutations: correlations with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates and implications for drug-resistance surveillance

Background. It is important, for drug-resistance surveillance, to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains that have undergone antiretroviral drug selection.Methods. We compared the prevalence of protease and reverse-transcriptase (RT) mutations in HIV-1 sequences from persons with and without…

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History of chickenpox and shingles and prevalence of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus and three other herpes viruses among adults with glioma and controls

Whether viruses or immunologic factors might cause or prevent human brain cancer is of interest. Statistically significant inverse associations of adult glioma with history of chickenpox and immunoglobulin G antibodies to varicella-zoster virus have been reported. The authors evaluate associations…

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Lack of association between receipt of conjugate haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (HbOC) in infancy and risk of type 1 (juvenile onset) diabetes: long term follow-up of the HbOC efficacy trial cohort

We evaluated the effect of infant vaccination with HbOC Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine on the risk of onset of type 1 juvenile diabetes later in life by examining data from a large controlled prospective Phase III clinical…

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Atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS): Interobserver reproducibility in cervical smears and corresponding thin-layer preparations

Five panelists independently reviewed 135 consecutive conventional cervical smears (CPs) originally classified as atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS). A thin-layer slide (TP), prepared from the residual material, also was reviewed in each case. All patients underwent colposcopy that…

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Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost and health benefits of implementing a risk factor-based prevention strategy for early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, using baseline assumptions and costs from a health maintenance organization. With the risk factor-based strategy, intrapartum antibiotics…

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