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Separating Algorithms from Questions and Causal Inference with Unmeasured Exposures: An Application to Birth Cohort Studies of Early BMI Rebound

Observational studies reporting on adjusted associations between childhood body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) rebound and subsequent cardiometabolic outcomes have often not paid explicit attention to causal inference, including definition of a target causal effect and assumptions for unbiased…

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Maternal weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum and subsequent risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Danish women: A cohort study

One-fourth of women experience substantially higher weight years after childbirth. We examined weight change from prepregnancy to 18 months postpartum according to subsequent maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We conducted a cohort study of 47,966 women with…

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Predictive Value of DXA Appendicular Lean Mass for Incident Fractures, Falls, and Mortality, Independent of Prior Falls, FRAX, and BMD: Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI)

In the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), we investigated associations between baseline dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) appendicular lean mass (ALM) and risk of incident fractures, falls, and mortality (separately for each outcome) among older postmenopausal women, accounting for bone mineral density…

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Body mass index versus bioelectrical impedance analysis for classifying physical function impairment in a racially diverse cohort of midlife women: the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

Body composition strongly influences physical function in older adults. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) differentiates fat mass from skeletal muscle mass, and may be more useful than body mass index (BMI) for classifying women on their likelihood of physical function impairment.…

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Association of donor age, body mass index, hemoglobin, and smoking status with in-hospital mortality and length of stay among red blood cell-transfused recipients

Recent publications have reported conflicting findings regarding associations of blood donor demographics and mortality of transfused patients. We hypothesized that the analysis of additional donor characteristics and consideration of alternative outcomes might provide insight into these disparate results. We analyzed…

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Gestational weight gain and optimal wellness (GLOW): rationale and methods for a randomized controlled trial of a lifestyle intervention among pregnant women with overweight or obesity

Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is common among women with overweight or obesity, increasing their risks for pregnancy complications, delivering a large infant, and postpartum weight retention. To date, only intensive interventions have had success and few interventions have been…

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Association of Body Fat and Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women With Normal Body Mass Index: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial and Observational Study

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, including the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subtype in postmenopausal women. Whether excess adiposity is associated with increased risk in women with a normal body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in…

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Diagnostic thresholds for pregnancy hyperglycemia, maternal weight status and the risk of childhood obesity in a diverse Northern California cohort using health care delivery system data

To estimate the risk of childhood obesity associated with the various criteria proposed for diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM), and the joint effects with maternal BMI. Cohort study of 46,396 women delivering at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care…

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A Tailored Letter Based on Electronic Health Record Data Improves Gestational Weight Gain Among Women With Gestational Diabetes: The Gestational Diabetes’ Effects on Moms (GEM) Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

Evaluate whether a tailored letter improved gestational weight gain (GWG) and whether GWG mediated a multicomponent intervention's effect on postpartum weight retention among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster-randomized controlled trial of 44 medical facilities (n = 2,014…

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Development and Testing of a Mobile-Health (m-health) Intervention tool to Help Obese Women Achieve Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain

To determine whether a mobile-health (m-health) tool (accessible via smartphone or website) intervention for obese pregnant improves patient satisfaction with their gestational weight gain, quality of life, stress and depression during pregnancy. Provider satisfaction with discussing gestational weight gain among…

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Clinical importance of non-participation in a maximal graded exercise test on risk of non-fatal and fatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: CARDIA study

While poor performance during a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) predicts cardiovascular events and premature mortality, the potential clinical importance of non-participation in a GXT, either for medical or non-medical reasons, is currently unknown. Data are from 4086 and 3547…

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Body Weight Change During and After Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure: Patient Characteristics, Markers of Congestion, and Outcomes: Findings From the ASCEND-HF Trial.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine the relationships between in-hospital and post-discharge body weight changes and outcomes among patients hospitalized for acute heart failure (AHF).BACKGROUND: Body weight changes during and after hospitalization for AHF and the relationships with outcomes have…

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Physical activity and changes in weight and waist circumference in midlife women: findings from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

Controversy exists regarding the extent to which age, menopausal status, and/or lifestyle behaviors account for the increased weight, fat mass, and central adiposity experienced by midlife women. To address this question, the authors longitudinally examined the relations of aging, menopausal…

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