While the incidence rates of many cancers have decreased in past decades, the incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma continues to increase. The only known precursor for oesophageal adenocarcinoma is Barrett’s oesophagus. Studies conducted have identified white race, male sex, GORD, cigarette smoking, obesity, and the absence of Helicobacter pylori status as risk factors for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Other potential associations include dietary factors and the absence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Many individual studies have been limited by sample size and several meta-analyses have pooled data from studies to address this limitation. In this review we present a synthesis of these studies and summarize current knowledge of risk factors for both oesophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett’s oesophagus.