We carried out a study of the aptamer proteomic assay, SomaScan V4, to evaluate the analytical and biological variability of the assay in plasma samples of patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma samples were selected from 2 sources: (a) 24 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and (b) 49 patients from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital-Kidney/Renal Clinic. We calculated intra-assay variability from both sources and examined short-term biological variability in samples from the Brigham clinic. We also measured correlations of aptamer measurements with traditional biomarker assays. A total of 4656 unique proteins (4849 total aptamer measures) were analyzed in all samples. Median (interquartile range [IQR] intra-assay CV) was 3.7% (2.8-5.3) in CRIC and 5.0% (3.8-7.0) in Brigham samples. Median (IQR) biological CV among Brigham samples drawn from one individual on 2 occasions separated by median (IQR) 7 (4-14) days was 8.7% (6.2-14). CVs were independent of CKD stage, diabetes, or albuminuria but were higher in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Rho correlations between aptamer and traditional assays for biomarkers of interest were cystatin C = 0.942, kidney injury model-1 = 0.905, fibroblast growth factor-23 = 0.541, tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 = 0.781 and 2 = 0.843, P < 10-100 for all. Intra-assay and within-subject variability for SomaScan in the CKD setting was low and similar to assay variability reported from individuals without CKD. Intra-assay precision was excellent whether samples were collected in an optimal research protocol, as were CRIC samples, or in the clinical setting, as were the Brigham samples.